Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 June 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 146 results:
Author [ Title(Asc)] Type Year
Filters: Author is Smeeth, L.  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
R. Boggon, Hubbard, R., Smeeth, L., Gulliford, M., Cassell, J., Eaton, S., Pirmohamed, M., and van Staa, T. P., Variability of antibiotic prescribing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a cohort study, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 13, p. 32, 2013.
E. L. Herrett, Thomas, S. L., and Smeeth, L., Validity of diagnoses in the general practice research database, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 61, pp. 438-9, 2011.
K. J. Rothnie, Mullerova, H., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., Davis, K., Thomas, S. L., and Quint, J. K., Validation of the Recording of Acute Exacerbations of COPD in UK Primary Care Electronic Healthcare Records, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151357, 2016.
E. Fombonne, Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Cook, C., Smith, P. G., Meng, L., and Hall, A. J., Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records, BMC Public Health, vol. 4, p. 5, 2004.
J. K. Quint, Mullerova, H., DiSantostefano, R. L., Forbes, H., Eaton, S., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Smeeth, L., Validation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD-GOLD), BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005540, 2014.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Validation of asthma recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017474, 2017.
E. Herrett, Thomas, S. L., Schoonen, W. M., Smeeth, L., and Hall, A. J., Validation and validity of diagnoses in the General Practice Research Database: a systematic review, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 69, pp. 4-14, 2010.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
J. L. Walker, Andrews, N. J., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 145, pp. 2678-2682, 2017.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015, Bmj, vol. 358, p. j3984, 2017.
E. Herrett, Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Ranopa, M., Free, C., Chadborn, T., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Text messaging reminders for influenza vaccine in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial (TXT4FLUJAB), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010069, 2016.
A. F. Macedo, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., Forbes, H., and Ebrahim, S., Statins and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: cohort study using the UK clinical practice pesearch datalink, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 14, p. 85, 2014.
K. Chidwick, Strongman, H., Matthews, A., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Statin use in cancer survivors versus the general population: cohort study using primary care data from the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Cancer, vol. 18, p. 1018, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Walters, K., Osborn, D. P., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 421-429, 2018.
R. J. Silverwood, Forbes, H. J., Abuabara, K., Ascott, A., Schmidt, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Severe and predominantly active atopic eczema in adulthood and long term risk of cardiovascular disease: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1786, 2018.
M. Schmidt, Mansfield, K. E., Bhaskaran, K., Nitsch, D., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Serum creatinine elevation after renin-angiotensin system blockade and long term cardiorenal risks: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 356, p. j791, 2017.
S. M. Langan, Minassian, C., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk of stroke following herpes zoster: a self-controlled case-series study, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 1497-503, 2014.
L. Smeeth, Thomas, S. L., Hall, A. J., Hubbard, R., Farrington, P., and Vallance, P., Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke after acute infection or vaccination, N Engl J Med, vol. 351, pp. 2611-8, 2004.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Pocock, S., and Smeeth, L., The risk of fractures associated with thiazolidinediones: a self-controlled case-series study, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000154, 2009.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
A. M. Gallagher, Smeeth, L., Seabroke, S., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes with thiazolidinediones: a study with the general practice research database and secondary care data, PLoS One, vol. 6, p. e28157, 2011.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Klungel, O., Reynolds, R., M. Tepie, F., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 39-46, 2016.
E. R. Millett, De Stavola, B. L., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk factors for hospital admission in the 28 days following a community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in older adults, and their contribution to increasing hospitalisation rates over time: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008737, 2015.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Rahman, A., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151245, 2016.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
J. K. Quint, Moore, E., Lewis, A., Hashmi, M., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Smeeth, L., Chatzidiakou, L., Jones, R., Beevers, S., Kolozali, S., Kelly, F., and Barratt, B., Recruitment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for research, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 21, 2018.
K. J. Rothnie, Mullerova, H., Thomas, S. L., Chandan, J. S., Smeeth, L., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Quint, J. K., Recording of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD in UK electronic health care records, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 8, pp. 771-782, 2016.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real-world effects of medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019475, 2018.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., Fombonne, P. E., Heavey, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Smith, P. G., and Hall, A. J., Rate of first recorded diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in United Kingdom general practice, 1988 to 2001, BMC Med, vol. 2, p. 39, 2004.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Downey, G., Bate, A., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Huerta, C., Gil, M., de Abajo, F., Requena, G., Alvarez, Y., Slattery, J., de Groot, M., Souverein, P., Hesse, U., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., de Vries, F., Tepie, M. F., Schlienger, R., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I., Reynolds, R., and Klungel, O., Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 11-20, 2016.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., McDonald, H. I., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 792-801, 2017.
K. E. Mansfield, Nitsch, D., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., and Tomlinson, L. A., Prescription of renin-angiotensin system blockers and risk of acute kidney injury: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012690, 2016.
H. J. Forbes, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Prescription of antiviral therapy after herpes zoster in general practice: who receives therapy?, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e808-14, 2012.
T. P. van Staa, Gulliford, M., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Prediction of cardiovascular risk using Framingham, ASSIGN and QRISK2: how well do they predict individual rather than population risk?, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e106455, 2014.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
T. P. Staa, Goldacre, B., Gulliford, M., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., and Smeeth, L., Pragmatic randomised trials using routine electronic health records: putting them to the test, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e55, 2012.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Edwards, E., Lee, H., Chaturvedi, N., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e014444, 2017.
L. Smeeth, Boulis, M., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A population based case-control study of cataract and inhaled corticosteroids, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 87, pp. 1247-51, 2003.
A. Matthews, Langan, S. M., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS Med, vol. 13, p. e1002037, 2016.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Forbes, H. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K., Silverwood, R. J., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner bereavement and risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema: cohort studies in the United Kingdom and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
S. A. Schmidt, Vestergaard, M., Pedersen, H. S., Schonheyder, H. C., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Mansfield, K. E., Sorensen, H. T., Forbes, H. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner Bereavement and Risk of Herpes Zoster: Results from Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 64, pp. 572-579, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 5 June 2020]