Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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A. M. Gallagher, Dedman, D., Padmanabhan, S., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., The accuracy of date of death recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database in England compared with the Office for National Statistics death registrations, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., ACE inhibitor use and risk of cataract: a case-control analysis, Br J Ophthalmol, 2019.
J. Watson, Salisbury, C., Whiting, P., Banks, J., Pyne, Y., and Hamilton, W., Added value and cascade effects of inflammatory marker tests in UK primary care: a cohort study from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e470-e478, 2019.
K. D. Johnson, Lu, X., and Zhang, D., Adherence to hepatitis A and hepatitis B multi-dose vaccination schedules among adults in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Public Health, vol. 19, p. 404, 2019.
R. L. Tannen, Barnhart, K. T., and Rubin, J. C., Advantages of large medical record database for outcomes research: Insights into post-menopausal hormone therapy, Learn Health Syst, vol. 3, p. e10193, 2019.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Santella, C., Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
M. Gharbi, Drysdale, J. H., Lishman, H., Goudie, R., Molokhia, M., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A. H., and Aylin, P., Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l525, 2019.
V. Palin, Molter, A., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., White, A., Welfare, W., and Van Staa, T., Antibiotic prescribing for common infections in UK general practice: variability and drivers, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
F. S. Troelsen and Jick, S., Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019.
P. Kasteridis, Ride, J., Gutacker, N., Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Siddiqi, N., Williams, R., and Jacobs, R., Association Between Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Outcomes for People With Serious Mental Illness in England, Psychiatr Serv, p. appips201800504, 2019.
J. Vavanikunnel, Charlier, S., Becker, C., Schneider, C., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Meier, C., Association between glycemic control and risk of fracture in diabetic patients: A nested case-control study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2019.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Association between inactivated influenza vaccine and primary care consultations for autoimmune rheumatic disease flares: a self-controlled case series study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
Y. M. F. Andersen, Egeberg, A., Ban, L., Gran, S., Williams, H. C., Francis, N. A., Knop, F. K., Gislason, G. H., Skov, L., and Thyssen, J. P., Association Between Topical Corticosteroid Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Two European Population-Based Adult Cohorts, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 1095-1103, 2019.
R. Williams, Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., de Vries, F., and Schlienger, R., Association between vildagliptin and risk of angioedema, foot ulcers, skin lesions, hepatic toxicity, and serious infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A European multidatabase, noninterventional, postauthorization safety study, Endocrinol Diabetes Metab, vol. 2, p. e00084, 2019.
F. Montastruc, Nie, R., Loo, S., Rej, S., Dell'Aniello, S., Micallef, J., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Association of Aripiprazole With the Risk for Psychiatric Hospitalization, Self-harm, or Suicide, JAMA Psychiatry, 2019.
I. Tamimi, Nicolau, B., Eimar, H., S. Madathil, A., Kezouh, A., Karp, I., and Tamimi, F., Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 849-857, 2018.
T. Khan, Alvand, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Culliford, D. J., Judge, A., Jackson, W. F., Scammell, B. E., Arden, N. K., and Price, A. J., ACL and meniscal injuries increase the risk of primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis: a matched case-control study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Br J Sports Med, 2018.
K. E. Mansfield, Douglas, I. J., Nitsch, D., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 187-202, 2018.
A. J. Hire, Ashcroft, D. M., Springate, D. A., and Steinke, D. T., ADHD in the United Kingdom: Regional and Socioeconomic Variations in Incidence Rates Amongst Children and Adolescents (2004-2013), J Atten Disord, vol. 22, pp. 134-142, 2018.
B. Hayhoe, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Bottle, A., Adherence to guidelines in management of symptoms suggestive of heart failure in primary care, Heart, 2018.
M. Bloechliger, Reinau, D., Spoendlin, J., Chang, S. C., Kuhlbusch, K., Heaney, L. G., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Adverse events profile of oral corticosteroids among asthma patients in the UK: cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 75, 2018.
S. Bou-Antoun, Costelloe, C., Honeyford, K., Mazidi, M., Hayhoe, B. W. J., Holmes, A., Johnson, A. P., and Aylin, P., Age-related decline in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care in England following the introduction of a national financial incentive (the Quality Premium) for health commissioners to reduce use of antibiotic, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 73, pp. 2883-2892, 2018.
B. M. Hicks, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Sakr, L., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and risk of lung cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4209, 2018.
J. Busby, McMenamin, U., Spence, A., Johnston, B. T., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Angiotensin receptor blocker use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 47, pp. 279-288, 2018.
K. Richardson, Fox, C., Maidment, I., Steel, N., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Myint, P. K., Grossi, C. M., Mattishent, K., Bennett, K., Campbell, N. L., Boustani, M., Robinson, L., Brayne, C., Matthews, F. E., and Savva, G. M., Anticholinergic drugs and risk of dementia: case-control study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1315, 2018.
R. Gafoor, Booth, H. P., and Gulliford, M. C., Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years' follow-up: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1951, 2018.
S. W. Turner, Murray, C., Thomas, M., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Applying UK real-world primary care data to predict asthma attacks in 3776 well-characterised children: a retrospective cohort study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 28, 2018.
S. Padmanabhan, Carty, L., Cameron, E., Ghosh, R. E., Williams, R., and Strongman, H., Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications, Eur J Epidemiol, 2018.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S. D., Cook, D. G., Strachan, D. P., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022404, 2018.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Yin, H., Barkun, A., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase inhibitors and the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, Ann Oncol, vol. 29, pp. 744-748, 2018.
J. D. Chalmers, Poole, C., Webster, S., Tebboth, A., Dickinson, S., and Gayle, A., Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Data, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 63, 2018.
V. Balinskaite, Bou-Antoun, S., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A., and Aylin, P., An assessment of potential unintended consequences following a national antimicrobial stewardship programme in England: an interrupted time series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, 2018.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., van den Berge, M., Brusselle, G. G., Gopalan, G., Jones, R. C. M., Kocks, J. W. H., Menzies-Gow, A., Nuevo, J., Pavord, I. D., Rastogi, S., and Price, D. B., Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0201143, 2018.
S. Hawley, Cordtz, R., Dreyer, L., Edwards, C. J., Arden, N. K., Delmestri, A., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Association between NICE guidance on biologic therapies with rates of hip and knee replacement among rheumatoid arthritis patients in England and Wales: An interrupted time-series analysis, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 47, pp. 605-610, 2018.
A. M. van Strien, Souverein, P. C., Keijsers, C., Heerdink, E. R., Derijks, H. J., and van Marum, R. J., Association Between Urinary Tract Infections and Antipsychotic Drug Use in Older Adults, J Clin Psychopharmacol, vol. 38, pp. 296-301, 2018.
K. Khunti, Danese, M. D., Kutikova, L., Catterick, D., Sorio-Vilela, F., Gleeson, M., Seshasai, S. R. Kondapa, Brownrigg, J., and Ray, K. K., Association of a Combined Measure of Adherence and Treatment Intensity With Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Atherosclerosis or Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Treated With Statins and/or Ezetimibe, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 1, p. e185554, 2018.
K. Bhaskaran, dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., Douglas, I. J., and Smeeth, L., Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 6, pp. 944-953, 2018.
J. P. Sheppard, Stevens, S., Stevens, R. J., Mant, J., Martin, U., Hobbs, F. D. R., and McManus, R. J., Association of guideline and policy changes with incidence of lifestyle advice and treatment for uncomplicated mild hypertension in primary care: a longitudinal cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e021827, 2018.
S. R. Pye, Sheppard, T., Joseph, R. M., Lunt, M., Girard, N., Haas, J. S., Bates, D. W., Buckeridge, D. L., van Staa, T. P., Tamblyn, R., and Dixon, W. G., Assumptions made when preparing drug exposure data for analysis have an impact on results: An unreported step in pharmacoepidemiology studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 781-788, 2018.
V. Prasad, West, J., Kendrick, D., and Sayal, K., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: variation by socioeconomic deprivation, Arch Dis Child, 2018.
K. W. Littink, Stappers, P. T. Y., Riemslag, F. C. C., Talsma, H. E., van Genderen, M. M., Cremers, F. P. M., Collin, R. W. J., and van den Born, L. I., Autosomal Recessive NRL Mutations in Patients with Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome, Genes (Basel), vol. 9, 2018.
M. Schmidt, Mansfield, K. E., Bhaskaran, K., Nitsch, D., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Adherence to guidelines for creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation following renin-angiotensin system blockade: a UK general practice-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012818, 2017.
B. Numbere, Fleming, K. M., Walker, A., and Card, T. R., Adrenergic blockers and the risk for common solid cancers: a case-control study, Eur J Cancer Prev, vol. 26, pp. 86-93, 2017.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Muller, M., Harewood, R., and Bhaskaran, K., Adverse mental health outcomes in breast cancer survivors compared to women who did not have cancer: systematic review protocol, Syst Rev, vol. 6, p. 162, 2017.
D. Stewart, Han, L., Doran, T., and McCambridge, J., Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality: an analysis of general practice database records for patients with long-term conditions, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 71, pp. 729-735, 2017.
R. Parisi, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., Moriarty, K. J., Kleyn, C. E., Griffiths, C. E. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Alcohol-Related Mortality in Patients With Psoriasis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, JAMA Dermatol, vol. 153, pp. 1256-1262, 2017.
B. M. Hicks, Klil-Drori, A. J., Yin, H., Campeau, L., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Anemia in Men with Prostate Cancer, Epidemiology, vol. 28, pp. 712-718, 2017.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Rej, S., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Dementia in Patients With Prostate Cancer, J Clin Oncol, vol. 35, pp. 201-207, 2017.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Bladou, F., Ernst, P., and Azoulay, L., Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 596-597, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]