Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 December 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 216 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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P. Rockenschaub, Nguyen, V., Aldridge, R. W., Acosta, D., Garcia-Gomez, J. M., and Saez, C., Data-driven discovery of changes in clinical code usage over time: a case-study on changes in cardiovascular disease recording in two English electronic health records databases (2001-2015), BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034396, 2020.
J. R. Ayala Solares, Raimondi, F. E. Diletta, Zhu, Y., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Gomes, A. C. Pinho, Payberah, A. H., Zottoli, M., Nazarzadeh, M., Conrad, N., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Deep learning for electronic health records: A comparative review of multiple deep neural architectures, J Biomed Inform, vol. 101, p. 103337, 2020.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bottle, A., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Delays in referral from primary care worsen survival for patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e463-e471, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Creese, H., Bottle, A., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Depression in individuals who subsequently develop inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study, Gut, 2020.
I. Gurol-Urganci, Geary, R. S., Mamza, J. B., Iwagami, M., El-Hamamsy, D., Duckett, J., Wilson, A., Tincello, D., and van der Meulen, J., Determinants of referral of women with urinary incontinence to specialist services: a national cohort study using primary care data from the UK, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 211, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mitsakakis, N., Kwong, J. C., Gomez, G. B., Chit, A., and Grootendorst, P., Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in England, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 3, p. e207743, 2020.
C. Mistry, Palin, V., Li, Y., Martin, G. P., Jenkins, D., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and Van Staa, T., Development and validation of a multivariable prediction model for infection-related complications in patients with common infections in UK primary care and the extent of risk-based prescribing of antibiotics, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 118, 2020.
R. A. Payne, Mendonca, S. C., Elliott, M. N., Saunders, C. L., Edwards, D. A., Marshall, M., and Roland, M., Development and validation of the Cambridge Multimorbidity Score, Cmaj, vol. 192, pp. E107-e114, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Rutter, M. K., and Kontopantelis, E., Development and validation of the DIabetes Severity SCOre (DISSCO) in 139 626 individuals with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. J. D. Threapleton, Kimpton, J. E., Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Cook, D. G., Harris, T., and Baker, E. H., Development of a structured clinical pharmacology review for specialist support for management of complex polypharmacy in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
G. Funston, Hamilton, W., Abel, G., Crosbie, E. J., Rous, B., and Walter, F. M., The diagnostic performance of CA125 for the detection of ovarian and non-ovarian cancer in primary care: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003295, 2020.
T. R. Card, Zittan, E., Nguyen, G. C., and Grainge, M. J., Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Associated With Arterial Vascular Disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2020.
A. Wolf, Dedman, D., Campbell, J., Booth, H., Lunn, D., Chapman, J., and Myles, P., Data resource profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Dehghan, G., Boivin, J. F., and Renoux, C., Degree of serotonin reuptake inhibition of antidepressants and ischemic risk: A cohort study, Neurology, vol. 93, pp. e1010-e1020, 2019.
C. S. Arhi, Markar, S., Burns, E. M., Bouras, G., Bottle, A., Hanna, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Delays in referral from primary care are associated with a worse survival in patients with esophagogastric cancer, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
S. Hawley, Edwards, C. J., Arden, N. K., Delmestri, A., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Descriptive epidemiology of hip and knee replacement in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of UK electronic medical records, Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2019.
H. Bricout, Torcel-Pagnon, L., Lecomte, C., Almas, M. F., Matthews, I., Lu, X., Wheelock, A., and Sevdalis, N., Determinants of shingles vaccine acceptance in the United Kingdom, PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0220230, 2019.
S. Harmala, O'Brien, A., Parisinos, C. A., Direk, K., Shallcross, L., and Hayward, A., Development and validation of a prediction model to estimate the risk of liver cirrhosis in primary care patients with abnormal liver blood test results: protocol for an electronic health record study in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diagn Progn Res, vol. 3, p. 10, 2019.
R. Alsaggaf, Pfeiffer, R. M., Wang, Y., St George, D. M. M., Zhan, M., Wagner, K. R., Amr, S., Greene, M. H., and Gadalla, S. M., Diabetes, Metformin, and Cancer Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I, Int J Cancer, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., O'Donnell, J., Nazarzadeh, M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Hobbs, F. D. R., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Diagnostic tests, drug prescriptions, and follow-up patterns after incident heart failure: A cohort study of 93,000 UK patients, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002805, 2019.
D. Stolz, Kostikas, K., Loefroth, E., Fogel, R., Gutzwiller, F. S., Conti, V., Cao, H., and Clemens, A., Differences in COPD exacerbation risk between women and men: analysis from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink data, Chest, 2019.
A. Douros, Rouette, J., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., and Azoulay, L., Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Bullous Pemphigoid Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Graham, S., Carroll, R., Raluy-Callado, M., Nordstrom, B. L., Donaldson, R., Colby, C., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., Discontinuation and primary care visits in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with apixaban or warfarin, J Comp Eff Res, 2019.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M., Valdes, A., Townsend, N., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Mamas, M. A., and Abhishek, A., Do beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs associate with reduced risk of symptomatic osteoarthritis and total joint replacement in the general population? A primary care-based, prospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032050, 2019.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Belmonte, M., Pate, A., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Do population-level risk prediction models that use routinely collected health data reliably predict individual risks?, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 11222, 2019.
I. Karp, Sivaswamy, A., and Booth, C., Does the use of incretin-based medications increase the risk of cancer in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
Y. Tao and Fu, H., Doubly robust estimation of the weighted average treatment effect for a target population, Stat Med, vol. 38, pp. 315-325, 2019.
D. Spanopoulos, Busse, M., Webb, J., Tebboth, A., Gollop, N. D., and Marcus, M. W., DPP-4 Inhibitor Dose Selection According to Manufacturer Specifications: A Contemporary Experience From UK General Practice, Clin Ther, vol. 41, pp. 1622-1630, 2019.
A. Jaggi, Nazir, J., Fatoye, F., Siddiqui, E., Choudhury, N., Argoubi, R., Ali, M., de Ridder, D., and Drake, M. J., Drug utilization patterns and healthcare resource use and costs in patients with neurogenic bladder in the United Kingdom: A retrospective primary care database study, Neurourol Urodyn, 2019.
R. Y. L. Kuo, Ng, M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Furniss, D., Dupuytren's disease predicts increased all-cause and cancer-specific mortality: analysis of a large cohort from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Plast Reconstr Surg, 2019.
M. L. Henry, Abdul-Sultan, A., Walker, A. J., West, J., and Humes, D. J., Duration and Magnitude of Postoperative Risk of Venous Thromboembolism after Cholecystectomy: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Dig Surg, pp. 1-7, 2019.
S. Landis, Suruki, R., Maskell, J., Bonar, K., Hilton, E., and Compton, C., Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of COPD Patients at Different Blood Eosinophil Levels in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Copd, vol. 15, pp. 177-184, 2018.
N. C. Hazra, Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Determinants of health care costs in the senior elderly: age, comorbidity, impairment, or proximity to death?, Eur J Health Econ, vol. 19, pp. 831-842, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Snell, K. I. E., Riley, R. D., Bedson, J., Edwards, J. J., Mallen, C. D., Tan, V., Ukachukwu, V., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Walker, C., and Peat, G., Development and validation of prediction models to estimate risk of primary total hip and knee replacements using data from the UK: two prospective open cohorts using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, 2018.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Assi, V., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Wilkinson, T., Schnier, C., Sudlow, C., Hemingway, H., and Whiteley, W. N., The diagnosis, burden and prognosis of dementia: A record-linkage cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0199026, 2018.
D. Abrahami, Douros, A., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Renoux, C., Bitton, A., and Azoulay, L., Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with type 2 diabetes: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k872, 2018.
J. Ride, Kasteridis, P., Gutacker, N., Kronenberg, C., Doran, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Gravelle, H., Goddard, M., Kendrick, T., Siddiqi, N., Gilbody, S., Dare, C. R., Aylott, L., Williams, R., and Jacobs, R., Do care plans and annual reviews of physical health influence unplanned hospital utilisation for people with serious mental illness? Analysis of linked longitudinal primary and secondary healthcare records in England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023135, 2018.
A. Leite, Thomas, S. L., and Andrews, N. J., Do delays in data availability limit the implementation of near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 25-29, 2018.
A. Harshfield, Abel, G. A., Barclay, S., and Payne, R. A., Do GPs accurately record date of death? A UK observational analysis, BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2018.
P. Dhiman, Andersen, S., Vestergaard, P., Masud, T., and Qureshi, N., Does bone mineral density improve the predictive accuracy of fracture risk assessment? A prospective cohort study in Northern Denmark, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e018898, 2018.
A. Mehrabadi, Reynier, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., Domperidone for insufficient lactation in England 2002-2015: A drug utilization study with interrupted time series analysis, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 1316-1324, 2018.
J. E. Thistle, Petrick, J. L., Yang, B., Bradley, M. C., Graubard, B. I., and McGlynn, K. A., Domperidone use and risk of primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 55, pp. 170-175, 2018.
D. J. Humes, Abdul-Sultan, A., Walker, A. J., Ludvigsson, J. F., and West, J., Duration and magnitude of postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism after planned inguinal hernia repair in men: a population-based cohort study, Hernia, vol. 22, pp. 447-453, 2018.
J. Wilding, Bailey, C., Rigney, U., Blak, B., Kok, M., and Emmas, C., Dapagliflozin therapy for type 2 diabetes in primary care: Changes in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure over 2 years follow-up, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 437-444, 2017.
R. Ravindrarajah, Dregan, A., Hazra, N. C., Hamada, S., Jackson, S. H. D., and Gulliford, M. C., Declining blood pressure and intensification of blood pressure management among people over 80 years: cohort study using electronic health records, J Hypertens, vol. 35, pp. 1276-1282, 2017.
J. D. Chalmers, Tebboth, A., Gayle, A., Ternouth, A., and Ramscar, N., Determinants of initial inhaled corticosteroid use in patients with GOLD A/B COPD: a retrospective study of UK general practice, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 27, p. 43, 2017.
K. K. Poppe, Doughty, R. N., Wells, S., Gentles, D., Hemingway, H., Jackson, R., and Kerr, A. J., Developing and validating a cardiovascular risk score for patients in the community with prior cardiovascular disease, Heart, vol. 103, pp. 891-892, 2017.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Proescholdt, M., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Diabetes, use of metformin, and the risk of meningioma, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0181089, 2017.
E. G. Tyrrell, Orton, E., Sayal, K., Baker, R., and Kendrick, D., Differing patterns in intentional and unintentional poisonings among young people in England, 1998-2014: a population-based cohort study, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 39, pp. e1-e9, 2017.
T. Holbrook, Tang, Y., Das, R., Shankar, R. R., Tunceli, K., Williams, J., Radican, L., Holden, S. E., Morgan, C. L., Piercy, J., and Currie, C. J., Direct medical costs of severe hypoglycaemic events in patients with type 2 diabetes in England: A retrospective database study, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 71, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 4 December 2020]