Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,300 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 December 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 193 pages)


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O. M. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Kulatilake, P., Faraj, A., Muttoni, E., Darzi, A., Ziprin, P., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., Effect of body mass index on depression in a UK cohort of 363 037 obese patients: A longitudinal analysis of transition, Clin Obes, p. e12305, 2019.
G. S. Matharu, Mouchti, S., Twigg, S., Delmestri, A., Murray, D. W., Judge, A., and Pandit, H. G., The effect of smoking on outcomes following primary total hip and knee arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study of 117,024 patients, Acta Orthop, pp. 1-9, 2019.
M. J. Cook, Sorial, A. K., Lunt, M., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Effect of timing and duration of statin exposure on risk of hip or knee revision arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Prevost, A. T., Charlton, J., Juszczyk, D., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., Yardley, L., and Ashworth, M., Effectiveness and safety of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support on antibiotic use for respiratory illness in primary care: REDUCE cluster randomised trial, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l236, 2019.
K. Marinier, Macouillard, P., de Champvallins, M., Deltour, N., Poulter, N., and Mancia, G., Effectiveness of two-drug therapy versus monotherapy as initial regimen in hypertension: A propensity score-matched cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
K. Mattishent, Richardson, K., Dhatariya, K., Savva, G. M., Fox, C., and Loke, Y. K., The effects of hypoglycemia and dementia on cardiovascular events, falls and fractures and all-cause mortality in older people - a retrospective cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
M. C. Gulliford, Juszczyk, D., Prevost, A. T., Soames, J., McDermott, L., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M., Yardley, L., Ashworth, M., and Charlton, J., Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-70, 2019.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
H. Whittaker, Connell, O., Campbell, J., Elbehairy, A. F., Hopkinson, N. S., and Quint, J. K., Eligibility for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients identified in a UK primary care setting, Chest, 2019.
R. Ferguson, Culliford, D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Delmestri, A., Arden, N., and Bowen, C., Encounters for foot and ankle pain in UK primary care: a population-based cohort study of CPRD data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e422-e429, 2019.
L. Horne, Ashfaq, A., MacLachlan, S., Sinsakul, M., Qin, L., LoCasale, R., and Wetmore, J. B., Epidemiology and health outcomes associated with hyperkalemia in a primary care setting in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 20, p. 85, 2019.
S. Wood, Marchant, A., Allsopp, M., Wilkinson, K., Bethel, J., Jones, H., and John, A., Epidemiology of eating disorders in primary care in children and young people: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study in England, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e026691, 2019.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., Reynier, P., and Filion, K. B., Estimation of high-dimensional propensity scores with multiple exposure levels, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
S. I. Shiekh, Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnicity and risk of diagnosed dementia after stroke: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2019.
K. Hedenmalm, Blake, K., Donegan, K., Macia, M. A., Gil, M., Williams, J., Montero, D., Candore, G., Morales, D., Kurz, X., and Arlett, P., A European multicentre drug utilisation study of the impact of regulatory measures on prescribing of codeine for pain in children, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Marley, Y. Hahi, E., Ferreira, G., Woods, L., and A. Villaescusa, R., Evaluation of a risk score to predict future Clostridium difficile disease using UK primary care and hospital data in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hum Vaccin Immunother, pp. 1-7, 2019.
C. F. Vogelmeier, Kostikas, K., Fang, J., Tian, H., Jones, B., Morgan, C. L., Fogel, R., Gutzwiller, F. S., and Cao, H., Evaluation of exacerbations and blood eosinophils in UK and US COPD populations, Respir Res, vol. 20, p. 178, 2019.
L. A. Scott, Jones, B. I., Berni, T. R., Berni, E. R., De Vries, J., and Currie, C. J., Evaluation of the epidemiology of peanut allergy in the United Kingdom, Expert Rev Clin Immunol, vol. 15, pp. 1333-1339, 2019.
L. A. Scott, Berni, T. R., Berni, E. R., De Vries, J., and Currie, C. J., Evaluation of the healthcare resource use and the related financial costs of managing peanut allergy in the United Kingdom, Expert Rev Clin Immunol, vol. 15, pp. 889-896, 2019.
S. Bellass, Taylor, J., Han, L., Prady, S. L., Shiers, D., Jacobs, R., Holt, R. I. G., Radford, J., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Doran, T., Alderson, S. L., and Siddiqi, N., Exploring Severe Mental Illness and Diabetes: Protocol for a Longitudinal, Observational, and Qualitative Mixed Methods Study, JMIR Res Protoc, vol. 8, p. 13407, 2019.
R. M. Joseph, van Staa, T. P., Lunt, M., Abrahamowicz, M., and Dixon, W. G., Exposure measurement error when assessing current glucocorticoid use using UK primary care electronic prescription data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 179-186, 2019.
M. H. Secrest, Platt, R. W., Dormuth, C. R., Chateau, D., Targownik, L., Nie, R., Doyle, C. M., Dell'Aniello, S., and Filion, K. B., Extreme restriction design as a method for reducing confounding by indication in pharmacoepidemiologic research, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Oke, J. L., Nicholson, B. D., Shephard, E., Braddick, M., and Hamilton, W., Early detection of multiple myeloma in primary care using blood tests: a case-control study in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e586-e593, 2018.
H. A. Abenhaim, Tulandi, T., Wilchesky, M., Platt, R., Spence, A. R., Czuzoj-Shulman, N., and Suissa, S., Effect of Cesarean Delivery on Long-term Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 131, pp. 354-359, 2018.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, G. M. J., Taylor, A. E., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records, Addiction, vol. 113, pp. 1105-1116, 2018.
K. J. Roberts, Bannister, C. A., and Schrem, H., Enzyme replacement improves survival among patients with pancreatic cancer: Results of a population based study, Pancreatology, 2018.
A. Cassell, Edwards, D., Harshfield, A., Rhodes, K., Brimicombe, J., Payne, R., and Griffin, S., The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e245-e251, 2018.
M. Liang, Ye, T., and Fu, H., Estimating individualized optimal combination therapies through outcome weighted deep learning algorithms, Stat Med, vol. 37, pp. 3869-3886, 2018.
L. R. Vaz, Jones, M. J., Szatkowski, L., Tata, L. J., Petrou, S., and Coleman, T., Estimating the health-care costs of children born to pregnant smokers in England: cohort study using primary and secondary health-care data, Addiction, vol. 113, pp. 1305-1316, 2018.
H. Caspard, Steffey, A., Mallory, R. M., and Ambrose, C. S., Evaluation of the safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children and adolescents with asthma and high-risk conditions: a population-based prospective cohort study conducted in England with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023118, 2018.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
J. M. Gamble, Chibrikov, E., Midodzi, W. K., Twells, L. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Examining the risk of depression or self-harm associated with incretin-based therapies used to manage hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023830, 2018.
K. Donegan, Owen, R., Bird, H., Burch, B., Smith, A., and Tregunno, P., Exploring the Potential Routine Use of Electronic Healthcare Record Data to Strengthen Early Signal Assessment in UK Medicines Regulation: Proof-of-Concept Study, Drug Saf, vol. 41, pp. 899-910, 2018.
R. M. Joseph, van Staa, T. P., Lunt, M., Abrahamowicz, M., and Dixon, W. G., Exposure measurement error when assessing current glucocorticoid use using UK primary care electronic prescription data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
J. Jackson, Lewis, N. V., Feder, G. S., Whiting, P., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and Redaniel, M. T., Exposure to domestic violence and abuse and consultations for emergency contraception: nested case-control study in a UK primary care dataset, Br J Gen Pract, 2018.
D. R. Morales, Flynn, R., Zhang, J., Trucco, E., Quint, J. K., and Zutis, K., External validation of ADO, DOSE, COTE and CODEX at predicting death in primary care patients with COPD using standard and machine learning approaches, Respir Med, vol. 138, pp. 150-155, 2018.
F. Rees, Doherty, M., Lanyon, P., Davenport, G., Riley, R. D., Zhang, W., and Grainge, M. J., Early Clinical Features in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Can They Be Used to Achieve Earlier Diagnosis? A Risk Prediction Model, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 69, pp. 833-841, 2017.
M. Franklin, Davis, S., Horspool, M., Kua, W. S., and Julious, S., Economic Evaluations Alongside Efficient Study Designs Using Large Observational Datasets: the PLEASANT Trial Case Study, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 35, pp. 561-573, 2017.
L. E. Bayliss, Culliford, D., Monk, A. P., Glyn-Jones, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Carr, A. J., Arden, N. K., Beard, D. J., and Price, A. J., The effect of patient age at intervention on risk of implant revision after total replacement of the hip or knee: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 389, pp. 1424-1430, 2017.
P. Brassard, Wu, J. W., Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Smiechowski, B., and Suissa, S., The effect of statins on influenza-like illness morbidity and mortality, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 63-70, 2017.
M. Pufulete, Maishman, R., Dabner, L., Mohiuddin, S., Hollingworth, W., Rogers, C. A., Higgins, J., Dayer, M., Macleod, J., Purdy, S., McDonagh, T., Nightingale, A., Williams, R., and Reeves, B. C., Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of serum B-type natriuretic peptide testing and monitoring in patients with heart failure in primary and secondary care: an evidence synthesis, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-150, 2017.
G. M. J. Taylor, Taylor, A. E., Thomas, K. H., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Davies, N. M., The effectiveness of varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy on long-term smoking cessation in primary care: a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 46, pp. 1948-1957, 2017.
E. Moore, Newson, R., Joshi, M., Palmer, T., Rothnie, K. J., Singh, S., Majeed, A., Soljak, M., and Quint, J. K., Effects of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Exacerbation Number and Severity in People With COPD: An Historical Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records, Chest, vol. 152, pp. 1188-1202, 2017.
K. Rahimi, Mohseni, H., Otto, C. M., Conrad, N., Tran, J., Nazarzadeh, M., Woodward, M., Dwyer, T., and MacMahon, S., Elevated blood pressure and risk of mitral regurgitation: A longitudinal cohort study of 5.5 million United Kingdom adults, PLoS Med, vol. 14, p. e1002404, 2017.
A. Thompson, Wright, A. K., Ashcroft, D. M., van Staa, T. P., and Pirmohamed, M., Epidemiology of alcohol dependence in UK primary care: Results from a large observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0174818, 2017.
A. T. Cohen, Katholing, A., Rietbrock, S., Bamber, L., and Martinez, C., Epidemiology of first and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer. A population-based cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 117, pp. 57-65, 2017.
C. Klop, van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., Harvey, N. C., and de Vries, F., The epidemiology of mortality after fracture in England: variation by age, sex, time, geographic location, and ethnicity, Osteoporos Int, vol. 28, pp. 161-168, 2017.
N. Frey, Jossi, J., Bodmer, M., Bircher, A., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., The Epidemiology of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in the UK, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 137, pp. 1240-1247, 2017.
P. P. Toth, Danese, M., Villa, G., Qian, Y., Beaubrun, A., Lira, A., and Jansen, J. P., Estimated burden of cardiovascular disease and value-based price range for evolocumab in a high-risk, secondary-prevention population in the US payer context, J Med Econ, vol. 20, pp. 555-564, 2017.
T. Verstraeten, Cattaert, T., Harris, J., Lopman, B., Tam, C. C., and Ferreira, G., Estimating the Burden of Medically Attended Norovirus Gastroenteritis: Modeling Linked Primary Care and Hospitalization Datasets, J Infect Dis, vol. 216, pp. 957-965, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 December 2019]