Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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G. Muduma, Aluvihare, V., Clancy, M., de Nigris, E., Whitlock, C., Landeira, M., and Nazir, J., The Last Year Before Graft Failure Negatively Impacts Economic Outcomes and is Associated With Greater Healthcare Resource Utilization Compared With Previous Years in the United Kingdom: Results of a Retrospective Observational Study, Transplant Direct, vol. 5, p. e443, 2019.
H. Strongman, Williams, R., Meeraus, W., Murray-Thomas, T., Campbell, J., Carty, L., Dedman, D., Gallagher, A., Oyinlola, J., Kousoulis, A., and Valentine, J., Limitations for health research with restricted data collection from UK primary care, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
J. E. Kimpton, Carey, I. M., Threapleton, C. J. D., Robinson, A., Harris, T., Cook, D. G., DeWilde, S., and Baker, E. H., Longitudinal exposure of English primary care patients to pharmacogenomic drugs: an analysis to inform design of pre-emptive pharmacogenomic testing, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
T. Itani, Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G. M. J., Thomas, K. H., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Davies, N. M., and Taylor, A. E., Long-term effectiveness and safety of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with neurodevelopmental disorders: A prospective cohort study, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 19488, 2019.
M. Sabido, Thilo, H., and Guido, G., Long-term effectiveness of bisoprolol in patients with angina: A real-world evidence study, Pharmacol Res, vol. 139, pp. 106-112, 2019.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Lazzari, L., Millar, O., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Venous Thromboembolic Risk: A Matched Cohort Study, Ann Surg, 2019.
D. Sumilo, Nirantharakumar, K., Willis, B. H., Rudge, G., Martin, J., Gokhale, K., Thayakaran, R., Adderley, N. J., Chandan, J. S., Okoth, K., Hewston, R., Skrybant, M., Deeks, J. J., and Brocklehurst, P., Long-term impact of giving antibiotics before skin incision versus after cord clamping on children born by caesarean section: protocol for a longitudinal study based on UK electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e033013, 2019.
D. E. Robinson, van Staa, T. P., Dennison, E. M., Cooper, C., and Dixon, W. G., The limitations of using simple definitions of glucocorticoid exposure to predict fracture risk: A cohort study, Bone, vol. 117, pp. 83-90, 2018.
E. Badrick, Renehan, I., and Renehan, A. G., Linkage of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink with the national cancer registry, Eur J Epidemiol, 2018.
U. Koppe, Nitsch, D., Mansfield, K. E., Mathur, R., Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Long-term effects of bariatric surgery on acute kidney injury: a propensity-matched cohort in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020371, 2018.
A. D. Mosholder, Lee, J. Y., Zhou, E. H., Kang, E. M., Ghosh, M., Izem, R., Major, J. M., and Graham, D. J., Long-Term Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Death With Outpatient Use of Clarithromycin: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 187, pp. 786-792, 2018.
A. Dregan, Ravindrarajah, R., Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., and Molokhia, M., Long-term trends in antithrombotic drug prescriptions among adults aged 80 years and over from primary care: a temporal trends analysis using electronic health records, Ann Epidemiol, vol. 28, pp. 440-446, 2018.
A. Rao, Kim, D., Darzi, A., Majeed, A., Aylin, P., and Bottle, A., Long-term trends of use of health service among heart failure patients, Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes, vol. 4, pp. 220-231, 2018.
R. M. Joseph, Ray, D. W., Keevil, B., van Staa, T. P., and Dixon, W. G., Low salivary cortisol levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis exposed to oral glucocorticoids: a cross-sectional study set within UK electronic health records, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000700, 2018.
T. A. Yates, Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Langan, S., Thomas, S., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort, PLoS Med, vol. 14, p. e1002457, 2017.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I., Sattar, N., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Life Expectancy and Cause-Specific Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Quantifying Relationships in Ethnic Subgroups, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 338-345, 2017.
G. Bouras, Burns, E. M., Howell, A. M., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., and Darzi, A., Linked hospital and primary care database analysis of the impact of short-term complications on recurrence in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, Hernia, vol. 21, pp. 191-198, 2017.
S. Turner, Richardson, K., Murray, C., Thomas, M., Hillyer, E. V., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Long-Acting beta-Agonist in Combination or Separate Inhaler as Step-Up Therapy for Children with Uncontrolled Asthma Receiving Inhaled Corticosteroids, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 5, pp. 99-106.e3, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Long-Acting Bronchodilator Initiation in COPD and the Risk of Adverse Cardiopulmonary Events: A Population-Based Comparative Safety Study, Chest, vol. 151, pp. 60-67, 2017.
E. Kontopantelis, Parisi, R., Springate, D. A., and Reeves, D., Longitudinal multiple imputation approaches for body mass index or other variables with very low individual-level variability: the mibmi command in Stata, BMC Res Notes, vol. 10, p. 41, 2017.
J. H. Driessen, van den Bergh, J. P., van Onzenoort, H. A., Henry, R. M., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Long-term use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and risk of fracture: A retrospective population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 421-428, 2017.
J. W. Wu, Azoulay, L., Majdan, A., Boivin, J. F., Pollak, M., and Suissa, S., Long-Term Use of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs and Breast Cancer Incidence in Women With Type 2 Diabetes, J Clin Oncol, vol. 35, pp. 3647-3653, 2017.
M. Kosiborod, Cavender, M. A., Fu, A. Z., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Holl, R. W., Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Thuresson, M., Arya, N., Bodegard, J., Hammar, N., and Fenici, P., Lower Risk of Heart Failure and Death in Patients Initiated on Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Versus Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs: The CVD-REAL Study (Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of Sodium-Glucose Cotranspo, Circulation, vol. 136, pp. 249-259, 2017.
F. Kelly, Armstrong, B., Atkinson, R., Anderson, H. R., Barratt, B., Beevers, S., Cook, D., Green, D., Derwent, D., Mudway, I., and Wilkinson, P., The London low emission zone baseline study, Res Rep Health Eff Inst, pp. 3-79, 2011.
S. Suissa, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., Evans, M., Vora, J., and Pollak, M., Long-term effects of insulin glargine on the risk of breast cancer, Diabetologia, vol. 54, pp. 2254-62, 2011.
N. F. Khan, Mant, D., Carpenter, L., Forman, D., and Rose, P. W., Long-term health outcomes in a British cohort of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors: a database study, Br J Cancer, vol. 105 Suppl 1, pp. S29-37, 2011.
D. P. Miller, Watkins, S. E., Sampson, T., and Davis, K. J., Long-term use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol fixed-dose combination and incidence of cataracts and glaucoma among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the UK General Practice Research Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 6, pp. 467-76, 2011.
A. C. Shafe, Lee, S., Dalrymple, J. S., and Whorwell, P. J., The LUCK study: Laxative Usage in patients with GP-diagnosed Constipation in the UK, within the general population and in pregnancy. An epidemiological study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), Therap Adv Gastroenterol, vol. 4, pp. 343-63, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]