Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 May 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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C. Salisbury, Lay-Flurrie, S., Bankhead, C. R., Fuller, A., Murphy, M., Caddick, B., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Holt, T., Nicholson, B. D., Perera, R., and Hobbs, F. R., Measuring the complexity of general practice consultations: a Delphi and cross-sectional study in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
S. Price, Zhang, X., and Spencer, A., Measuring the impact of national guidelines: What methods can be used to uncover time-varying effects for healthcare evaluations?, Soc Sci Med, vol. 258, p. 113021, 2020.
Y. Tang, Weiss, T., Liu, J., Rajpathak, S., and Khunti, K., Metformin adherence and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study, J Clin Transl Endocrinol, vol. 20, p. 100225, 2020.
A. T. O. Nickinson, Coles, B., Zaccardi, F., Gray, L. J., Payne, T., Bown, M. J., Davies, R. S. M., Khunti, K., and Sayers, R. D., Missed Opportunities for Timely Recognition of Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischaemia in Patients Undergoing a Major Amputation: A Population Based Cohort Study Using the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Mortality among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
I. E. M. Bultink, de Vries, F., van Vollenhoven, R. F., and Lalmohamed, A., Mortality, causes of death and influence of medication use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus vs matched controls, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
M. Stafford, Deeny, S., Dreyer, K., and Jenny, S., Multimorbidity within households and use of health and social care, BJGP Open, 2020.
J. A. Rassen, Bartels, D. B., Schneeweiss, S., Patrick, A. R., and Murk, W., Measuring prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions in claims and electronic health record databases, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 1-15, 2019.
N. J. Ailabouni, Marcum, Z. A., Schmader, K. E., and Gray, S. L., Medication Use Quality and Safety in Older Adults: 2018 Update, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019.
H. Strongman, Gadd, S., Matthews, A., Mansfield, K. E., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Medium and long-term risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of 20 adult cancers: a population-based cohort study using multiple linked UK electronic health records databases, Lancet, 2019.
R. E. Farmer, Ford, D., Mathur, R., Chaturvedi, N., Kaplan, R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Metformin use and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of primary care records using inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
C. Minassian, Williams, R., Meeraus, W. H., Smeeth, L., Campbell, O. M. R., and Thomas, S. L., Methods to generate and validate a Pregnancy Register in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 923-933, 2019.
R. Brauer, Herrero-Zazo, M., Barlow, D. J., Gaughran, F., Taylor, D., and Howard, L. M., Minocycline and the risk of acute psychiatric events in adolescence: A self-controlled case series, J Psychopharmacol, p. 269881118821852, 2019.
E. R. Berni, Jones, B. I., Berni, T. R., Whitehouse, J., Hudson, M., Orr, J., Conway, P., Amlani, B., and Currie, C. J., The Model of Mortality with Incident Cirrhosis (MoMIC) and the model of Long-term Outlook of Mortality in Cirrhosis (LOMiC), PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0223253, 2019.
A. Green, Shaddick, G., Charlton, R., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Smith, C., Tillett, W., and McHugh, N., Modifiable risk factors and the development of psoriatic arthritis in people with psoriasis, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
J. M. Ryan, Peterson, M. D., Ryan, N., Smith, K. J., N, E. O. 'Connell, Liverani, S., Anokye, N., Victor, C., and Allen, E., Mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer in adults with cerebral palsy, Dev Med Child Neurol, 2019.
E. Gieling, de Vries, F., Williams, R., van Onzenoort, H. A. W., de Boer, A., V. Cate, T., Kramers, C., and Burden, A., Mortality risk in atrial fibrillation: the role of aspirin, vitamin K and non-vitamin K antagonists, Int J Clin Pharm, 2019.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Wagner, M., Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A., and Jick, S., Multi-database study of multiple sclerosis: identification, validation and description of MS patients in two countries, J Neurol, 2019.
M. H. Secrest, Platt, R. W., Reynier, P., Dormuth, C. R., Benedetti, A., and Filion, K. B., Multiple imputation for systematically missing confounders within a distributed data drug safety network: A simulation study and real-world example, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
K. W. Hagberg, Robijn, A. L., and Jick, S., Maternal depression and antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1599-1612, 2018.
L. Scheepers, Burden, A. M., Arts, I. C. W., Spaetgens, B., Souverein, P., de Vries, F., and Boonen, A., Medication adherence among gout patients initiated allopurinol: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 1641-1650, 2018.
M. Cainzos-Achirica, Varas-Lorenzo, C., Pottegard, A., Asmar, J., Plana, E., Rasmussen, L., Bizouard, G., Forns, J., Hellfritzsch, M., Zint, K., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Pladevall-Vila, M., Methodological challenges when evaluating potential off-label prescribing of drugs using electronic health care databases: A case study of dabigatran etexilate in Europe, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 713-723, 2018.
S. A. J. Schmidt, Langan, S. M., Pedersen, H. S., Schonheyder, H. C., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Mansfield, K. E., Sorensen, H. T., Forbes, H. J., and Vestergaard, M., Mood Disorders and Risk of Herpes Zoster in 2 Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 187, pp. 1019-1028, 2018.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., Mortality in Patients With Giant Cell Arteritis: A Cohort Study in UK Primary Care, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 70, pp. 1251-1256, 2018.
O. M. Moussa, Erridge, S., Chidambaram, S., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., and Purkayastha, S., Mortality of the Severely Obese: A Population Study, Ann Surg, 2018.
K. J. Rothnie, Connell, O., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., Douglas, I., and Quint, J. K., Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke after Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ann Am Thorac Soc, vol. 15, pp. 935-946, 2018.
N. A. Francis, Entwistle, K., Santer, M., Layton, A. M., Eady, E. A., and Butler, C. C., The management of acne vulgaris in primary care: a cohort study of consulting and prescribing patterns using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, vol. 176, pp. 107-115, 2017.
M. D. Danese, Gleeson, M., Kutikova, L., Griffiths, R. I., Khunti, K., Seshasai, S. R. K., and Ray, K. K., Management of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with cardiovascular events in the UK: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013851, 2017.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Evans, M., Puelles, J., and Sinclair, A., Managing glycaemia in older people with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective, primary care-based cohort study, with economic assessment of patient outcomes, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 644-653, 2017.
S. Lane, Lynn, E., and Shakir, S., Measuring the impact of product withdrawals and other major pharmacovigilance actions on public health burden in the EU: Methodological considerations, Drug Safety, vol. 40, pp. 953-4, 2017.
C. Seliger, Meier, C. R., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Proescholdt, M., Bogdahn, U., Hau, P., and Leitzmann, M. F., Metabolic syndrome in relation to risk of meningioma, Oncotarget, vol. 8, pp. 2284-2292, 2017.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Sinyavskaya, L., Suissa, S., Azoulay, L., and Brassard, P., Metformin and the incidence of viral associated cancers in patients with type 2 diabetes, Int J Cancer, vol. 141, pp. 121-128, 2017.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Metformin and the risk of renal cell carcinoma: a case-control analysis, Eur J Cancer Prev, vol. 26, pp. 257-262, 2017.
M. D. Danese, Gleeson, M., Griffiths, R. I., Catterick, D., and Kutikova, L., Methods for estimating costs in patients with hyperlipidemia experiencing their first cardiovascular event in the United Kingdom, J Med Econ, vol. 20, pp. 931-937, 2017.
G. Glover, Williams, R., Heslop, P., Oyinlola, J., and Grey, J., Mortality in people with intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 61, pp. 62-74, 2017.
K. D. Getz, Anderka, M. T., Werler, M. M., and Jick, S. S., Maternal Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index and Autism Spectrum Disorder among Offspring: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol. 30, pp. 479-87, 2016.
K. A. McGlynn, Hagberg, K., Chen, J., Braunlin, M., Graubard, B. I., Suneja, N., Jick, S., and Sahasrabuddhe, V. V., Menopausal hormone therapy use and risk of primary liver cancer in the clinical practice research datalink, Int J Cancer, vol. 138, pp. 2146-53, 2016.
J. Drahos, Li, L., Jick, S. S., and Cook, M. B., Metabolic syndrome in relation to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Results from a large population-based case-control study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 42, pp. 9-14, 2016.
U. C. Mc Menamin, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C. M., and Cardwell, C. R., Metformin use and survival after colorectal cancer: A population-based cohort study, Int J Cancer, vol. 138, pp. 369-79, 2016.
U. C. Menamin, Cardwell, C. R., Hughes, C. M., and Murray, L. M., Metformin use and survival from lung cancer: A population-based cohort study, Lung Cancer, vol. 94, pp. 35-9, 2016.
A. Afonso, Schmiedl, S., Becker, C., Tcherny-Lessenot, S., Primatesta, P., Plana, E., Souverein, P., Wang, Y., Korevaar, J. C., Hasford, J., Reynolds, R., de Groot, M. C., Schlienger, R., Klungel, O., and Rottenkolber, M., A methodological comparison of two European primary care databases and replication in a US claims database: inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists and the risk of acute myocardial infarction, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 72, pp. 1105-16, 2016.
J. R. Brownrigg, Hughes, C. O., Burleigh, D., Karthikesalingam, A., Patterson, B. O., Holt, P. J., Thompson, M. M., de Lusignan, S., Ray, K. K., and Hinchliffe, R. J., Microvascular disease and risk of cardiovascular events among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a population-level cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 4, pp. 588-97, 2016.
S. Mohiuddin, Reeves, B., Pufulete, M., Maishman, R., Dayer, M., Macleod, J., McDonagh, T., Purdy, S., Rogers, C., and Hollingworth, W., Model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of B-type natriuretic peptide-guided care in patients with heart failure, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e014010, 2016.
G. Karystianis, Sheppard, T., Dixon, W. G., and Nenadic, G., Modelling and extraction of variability in free-text medication prescriptions from an anonymised primary care electronic medical record research database, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 16, p. 18, 2016.
I. Olier, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Doran, T., Reeves, D., Planner, C., Reilly, S., and Kontopantelis, E., Modelling Conditions and Health Care Processes in Electronic Health Records: An Application to Severe Mental Illness with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0146715, 2016.
S. Taylor, Taylor, R. J., Lustig, R. L., Schuck-Paim, C., Haguinet, F., Webb, D. J., Logie, J., Matias, G., and Fleming, D. M., Modelling estimates of the burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009337, 2016.
A. Judge, Javaid, M. K., Leal, J., Hawley, S., Drew, S., Sheard, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Gooberman-Hill, R., Lippett, J., Farmer, A., Arden, N., Gray, A., Goldacre, M., Delmestri, A., and Cooper, C., Models of care for the delivery of secondary fracture prevention after hip fracture: a health service cost, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness study within a region of England, Health Services and Delivery Research, vol. No. 4.28, 2016.
J. R. Olsen, Piguet, V., Gallacher, J., and Francis, N. A., Molluscum contagiosum and associations with atopic eczema in children: a retrospective longitudinal study in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e53-8, 2016.
M. Alexander, Petri, H., Ding, Y., Wandel, C., Khwaja, O., and Foskett, N., Morbidity and medication in a large population of individuals with Down syndrome compared to the general population, Dev Med Child Neurol, vol. 58, pp. 246-54, 2016.
F. J. Hosking, Carey, I. M., Shah, S. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Beighton, C., and Cook, D. G., Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population, Am J Public Health, vol. 106, pp. 1483-90, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 4 May 2021]