Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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H. J. Forbes, Wong, A. Y. S., Morton, C., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Richards, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Langan, S. M., and Warren-Gash, C., Partner Bereavement and Detection of Dementia: A UK-Based Cohort Study Using Routine Health Data, J Alzheimers Dis, 2019.
S. A. Schmidt, Vestergaard, M., Pedersen, H. S., Schonheyder, H. C., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Mansfield, K. E., Sorensen, H. T., Forbes, H. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner Bereavement and Risk of Herpes Zoster: Results from Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 64, pp. 572-579, 2017.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Forbes, H. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K., Silverwood, R. J., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner bereavement and risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema: cohort studies in the United Kingdom and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
A. Matthews, Langan, S. M., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS Med, vol. 13, p. e1002037, 2016.
L. Smeeth, Boulis, M., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A population based case-control study of cataract and inhaled corticosteroids, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 87, pp. 1247-51, 2003.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Edwards, E., Lee, H., Chaturvedi, N., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e014444, 2017.
T. P. Staa, Goldacre, B., Gulliford, M., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., and Smeeth, L., Pragmatic randomised trials using routine electronic health records: putting them to the test, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e55, 2012.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
T. P. van Staa, Gulliford, M., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Prediction of cardiovascular risk using Framingham, ASSIGN and QRISK2: how well do they predict individual rather than population risk?, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e106455, 2014.
H. J. Forbes, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Prescription of antiviral therapy after herpes zoster in general practice: who receives therapy?, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e808-14, 2012.
K. E. Mansfield, Nitsch, D., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., and Tomlinson, L. A., Prescription of renin-angiotensin system blockers and risk of acute kidney injury: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012690, 2016.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., McDonald, H. I., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 792-801, 2017.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Downey, G., Bate, A., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Huerta, C., Gil, M., de Abajo, F., Requena, G., Alvarez, Y., Slattery, J., de Groot, M., Souverein, P., Hesse, U., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., de Vries, F., Tepie, M. F., Schlienger, R., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I., Reynolds, R., and Klungel, O., Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 11-20, 2016.
H. Carreira, Strongman, H., Peppa, M., McDonald, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Prevalence of COVID-19-related risk factors and risk of severe influenza outcomes in cancer survivors: A matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records data, EClinicalMedicine, 2020.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 February 2021]