Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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K. M. Abel, Hope, H., Swift, E., Parisi, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Kosidou, K., Osam, C. S., Dalman, C., and Pierce, M., Prevalence of maternal mental illness among children and adolescents in the UK between 2005 and 2017: a national retrospective cohort analysis, Lancet Public Health, vol. 4, pp. e291-e300, 2019.
F. A. Achana, Fleming, K. M., Tata, L. J., Sultan, A. A., and Petrou, S., Peripartum hysterectomy: an economic analysis of direct healthcare costs using routinely collected data, Bjog, vol. 125, pp. 874-883, 2018.
R. Ackers, Murray, M. L., Besag, F. M., and Wong, I. C., Prioritizing children's medicines for research: a pharmaco-epidemiological study of antiepileptic drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 63, pp. 689-97, 2007.
M. Alexander, Ding, Y., Foskett, N., Petri, H., Wandel, C., and Khwaja, O., Population prevalence of Down's syndrome in the United Kingdom, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 60, pp. 874-8, 2016.
N. Arden, Altman, D., Beard, D., Carr, A., Clarke, N., Collins, G., Cooper, C., Culliford, D., Delmestri, A., Garden, S., Griffin, T., Javaid, K., Judge, A., Latham, J., Mullee, M., Murray, D., Ogundimu, E., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Price, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Raftery, J., Programme Grants for Applied Research, in Lower limb arthroplasty: can we produce a tool to predict outcome and failure, and is it cost-effective? An epidemiological study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright (c) Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2017. This work was produced by Arden et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the pu, 2017.
D. Bennett, Hodgson, M. E., Shukla, A., and Logie, J. W., Prevalence of diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia in the United Kingdom, Adv Ther, vol. 28, pp. 1096-104, 2011.
T. R. Berni, Morgan, C. L., Berni, E. R., and Rees, D. A., Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Adverse Mental Health and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 103, pp. 2116-2125, 2018.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, J Crohns Colitis, 2020.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
G. Bouras, Markar, S. R., Burns, E. M., Huddy, J. R., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., Darzi, A., and Hanna, G. B., The psychological impact of symptoms related to esophagogastric cancer resection presenting in primary care: A national linked database study, Eur J Surg Oncol, vol. 43, pp. 454-460, 2017.
K. Bowman, Jones, L., Masoli, J., Mujica-Mota, R., Strain, D., Butchart, J., Valderas, J. M., Fortinsky, R. H., Melzer, D., and Delgado, J., Predicting incident delirium diagnoses using data from primary-care electronic health records, Age Ageing, vol. 49, pp. 374-381, 2020.
M. C. Bradley, Motterlini, N., Padmanabhan, S., Cahir, C., Williams, T., Fahey, T., and Hughes, C. M., Potentially inappropriate prescribing among older people in the United Kingdom, BMC Geriatr, vol. 14, p. 72, 2014.
M. C. Bradley, Murray, L. J., Cantwell, M. M., and Hughes, C. M., Proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2-receptor antagonists and pancreatic cancer risk: a nested case-control study, Br J Cancer, vol. 106, pp. 233-9, 2012.
Y. B. Brauchli, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Psoriasis and the risk of incident diabetes mellitus: a population-based study, Br J Dermatol, vol. 159, pp. 1331-7, 2008.
Y. B. Brauchli, Jick, S. S., Miret, M., and Meier, C. R., Psoriasis and risk of incident cancer: an inception cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 129, pp. 2604-12, 2009.
Y. B. Brauchli, Jick, S. S., Miret, M., and Meier, C. R., Psoriasis and risk of incident myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischaemic attack: an inception cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, Br J Dermatol, vol. 160, pp. 1048-56, 2009.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Downey, G., Bate, A., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Huerta, C., Gil, M., de Abajo, F., Requena, G., Alvarez, Y., Slattery, J., de Groot, M., Souverein, P., Hesse, U., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., de Vries, F., Tepie, M. F., Schlienger, R., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I., Reynolds, R., and Klungel, O., Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 11-20, 2016.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a decreased risk of incident gout: a population-based case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 1651-8, 2015.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, D., Stohler, N. A., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Population-Based Study on the Epidemiology of Meniere's Disease, Audiol Neurootol, vol. 22, pp. 74-82, 2017.
C. L. Burton, Chesterton, L. S., Chen, Y., and van der Windt, D. A., Predicting surgical intervention in patients presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome in primary care, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 739-748, 2018.
J. Busby, Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Postdiagnostic Calcium Channel Blocker Use and Breast Cancer Mortality: A Population-based Cohort Study, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 407-413, 2018.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Premature Death Among Primary Care Patients With a History of Self-Harm, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 246-254, 2017.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., White, P. D., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Prevalence of comorbid mental and physical illnesses and risks for self-harm and premature death among primary care patients diagnosed with fatigue syndromes, Psychol Med, pp. 1-8, 2019.
C. R. Chapple, Nazir, J., Hakimi, Z., Bowditch, S., Fatoye, F., Guelfucci, F., Khemiri, A., Siddiqui, E., and Wagg, A., Persistence and Adherence with Mirabegron versus Antimuscarinic Agents in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Retrospective Observational Study in UK Clinical Practice, Eur Urol, vol. 72, pp. 389-399, 2017.
Y. Chen, Farooq, S., Edwards, J., Chew-Graham, C. A., Shiers, D., Frisher, M., Hayward, R., Sumathipala, A., and Jordan, K. P., Patterns of symptoms before a diagnosis of first episode psychosis: a latent class analysis of UK primary care electronic health records, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 227, 2019.
Y. Chen, Hayward, R., Chew-Graham, C. A., Hubbard, R., Croft, P., Sims, K., and Jordan, K. P., Prognostic value of first-recorded breathlessness for future chronic respiratory and heart disease a cohort study using a UK national primary care database, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
A. Cherskov, Pohl, A., Allison, C., Zhang, H., Payne, R. A., and Baron-Cohen, S., Polycystic ovary syndrome and autism: A test of the prenatal sex steroid theory, Transl Psychiatry, vol. 8, p. 136, 2018.
T. P. Chu, Shah, A., Walker, D., and Coleman, M. P., Pattern of symptoms and signs of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults: a record linkage study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 1115-22, 2015.
T. P. C. Chu, Moran, G. W., and Card, T. R., The Pattern of Underlying Cause of Death in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in England: A Record Linkage Study, J Crohns Colitis, vol. 11, pp. 578-585, 2017.
A. J. M. Cooper, Willis, J., Fuller, J., Benecke, H., Leighton-Scott, J., Andersohn, F., Kim, J., Maier, C., and Knaggs, R. D., Prevalence and Incidence Trends for Diagnosed Prescription Opioid Use Disorders in the United Kingdom, Pain Ther, vol. 6, pp. 73-84, 2017.
D. Culliford, Maskell, J., Judge, A., and Arden, N. K., A population-based survival analysis describing the association of body mass index on time to revision for total hip and knee replacements: results from the UK general practice research database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003614, 2013.
M. D. Danese, Sidelnikov, E., and Kutikova, L., The prevalence, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and treatment of patients at very high risk of cardiovascular events in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional study, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 34, pp. 1441-1447, 2018.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., Beynon, J., and Donegan, K., Patterns of anti-diabetic medication use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in England and Wales, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 127-135, 2017.
N. M. Davies, Gunnell, D., Thomas, K. H., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., Physicians' prescribing preferences were a potential instrument for patients' actual prescriptions of antidepressants, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 66, pp. 1386-96, 2013.
H. J. I. De Jong, Tervaert, J. W. Cohen, Lalmohamed, A., de Vries, F., Vandebriel, R. J., Van Loveren, H., Klungel, O. H., and van Staa, T. P., Pattern of risks of rheumatoid arthritis among patients using statins: A cohort study with the clinical practice research datalink, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0193297, 2018.
H. J. I. De Jong, van Staa, T. P., Lalmohamed, A., de Vries, F., Vandebriel, R. J., Van Loveren, H., Klungel, O. H., and Tervaert, J. W. Cohen, Pattern of risks of systemic lupus erythematosus among statin users: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 76, pp. 1723-1730, 2017.
R. Denholm, Morris, R., and Payne, R., Polypharmacy patterns in the last year of life in patients with dementia, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
J. M. Dennis, Shields, B. M., Hill, A. V., Knight, B. A., McDonald, T. J., Rodgers, L. R., Weedon, M. N., Henley, W. E., Sattar, N., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., and Jones, A. G., Precision Medicine in Type 2 Diabetes: Clinical Markers of Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Altered Short- and Long-term Glycemic Response to DPP-4 Inhibitor Therapy, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 705-712, 2018.
J. R. DiBello, Ioannou, C., Rees, J., Challacombe, B., Maskell, J., Choudhury, N., Kastner, C., and Kirby, M., Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among men with and without clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: a large, cross-sectional, UK epidemiological study, BJU Int, vol. 117, pp. 801-8, 2016.
G. Disanto, Zecca, C., MacLachlan, S., Sacco, R., Handunnetthi, L., Meier, U. C., Simpson, A., McDonald, L., Rossi, A., Benkert, P., Kuhle, J., Ramagopalan, S. V., and Gobbi, C., Prodromal symptoms of multiple sclerosis in primary care, Ann Neurol, vol. 83, pp. 1162-1173, 2018.
R. L. DiSantostefano and Davis, K. J., Prescription patterns in asthma patients initiating salmeterol in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 511-20, 2011.
F. DM, Practice based information systems for monitoring medicines, Pharmaceutical Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 161-176, 1994.
A. Douros, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Pharmacologic Differences of Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Hypoglycemic Events, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1506-1513, 2017.
A. Dregan, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C. D., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., Gulliford, M. C., and Steering, C. Trial, Point-of-care cluster randomized trial in stroke secondary prevention using electronic health records, Stroke, vol. 45, pp. 2066-71, 2014.
A. Dregan, Grieve, A., Van Staa, T., and Gulliford, M. C., Potential application of item-response theory to interpretation of medical codes in electronic patient records, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 11, p. 168, 2011.
E. Edson-Heredia, Zhu, B., Lefevre, C., Wang, M., Barrett, A., Bushe, C. J., Cox, A., Wu, J. J., and Maeda-Chubachi, T., Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other diseases in patients with psoriatic or psoriatic arthritis: a retrospective study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, vol. 29, pp. 955-63, 2015.
M. Egbring, Kullak-Ublick, G. A., and Russmann, S., Phynx: an open source software solution supporting data management and web-based patient-level data review for drug safety studies in the general practice research database and other health care databases, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 38-44, 2010.
C. Ellis, Gnani, S., and Majeed, A., Prevalence and management of heart failure in general practice in England and Wales, 1994-98, Health Stat Q., pp. 17-24, 2001.
P. Ernst, Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Pramipexole use and the risk of pneumonia, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 113, 2012.
S. J. Evans, Douglas, I., Rawlins, M. D., Wexler, N. S., Tabrizi, S. J., and Smeeth, L., Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 84, pp. 1156-60, 2013.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]