Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Book Chapter
N. Arden, Altman, D., Beard, D., Carr, A., Clarke, N., Collins, G., Cooper, C., Culliford, D., Delmestri, A., Garden, S., Griffin, T., Javaid, K., Judge, A., Latham, J., Mullee, M., Murray, D., Ogundimu, E., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Price, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Raftery, J., Programme Grants for Applied Research, in Lower limb arthroplasty: can we produce a tool to predict outcome and failure, and is it cost-effective? An epidemiological study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright (c) Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2017. This work was produced by Arden et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the pu, 2017.
Journal Article
A. Henderson, Iwagami, M., Bottomley, C., Tomlinson, L., Mansfield, K., and Nitsch, D., Paediatric acute kidney injury hospital admissions in England 1997–2014: burden and risk factors, Clinical Kidney Journal, 2019.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Macleod, U., Ansell, P., Oliver, S., and Johnson, M., Palliative care among heart failure patients in primary care: a comparison to cancer patients using English family practice data, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e113188, 2014.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Oliver, S. E., Johnson, M. J., Macleod, U., and Allgar, V., Palliative care for non-cancer conditions in primary care: a time trend analysis in the UK (2009-2014), BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2020.
R. Williams, Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., and Schlienger, R., Pancreatic safety of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A European, noninterventional, postauthorization safety study, Endocrinol Diabetes Metab, vol. 2, p. e00052, 2019.
C. J. Sammon, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., and de Vries, C. S., Pandemic influenza vaccination during pregnancy: an investigation of vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 pandemic vaccination campaign in Great Britain, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol. 9, pp. 917-23, 2013.
K. Walters, Rait, G., Petersen, I., Williams, R., and Nazareth, I., Panic disorder and risk of new onset coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac mortality: cohort study using the general practice research database, Eur Heart J, vol. 29, pp. 2981-8, 2008.
K. Gruntz, Bloechliger, M., Becker, C., Jick, S. S., Fuhr, P., Meier, C. R., and Ruegg, S., Parkinson disease and the risk of epileptic seizures, Ann Neurol, vol. 83, pp. 363-374, 2018.
S. Toovey, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Parkinson's disease or Parkinson symptoms following seasonal influenza, Influenza Other Respir Viruses, vol. 5, pp. 328-33, 2011.
H. J. Forbes, Wong, A. Y. S., Morton, C., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Richards, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Langan, S. M., and Warren-Gash, C., Partner Bereavement and Detection of Dementia: A UK-Based Cohort Study Using Routine Health Data, J Alzheimers Dis, 2019.
S. A. Schmidt, Vestergaard, M., Pedersen, H. S., Schonheyder, H. C., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Mansfield, K. E., Sorensen, H. T., Forbes, H. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner Bereavement and Risk of Herpes Zoster: Results from Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 64, pp. 572-579, 2017.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Forbes, H. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K., Silverwood, R. J., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner bereavement and risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema: cohort studies in the United Kingdom and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
M. M. Loiacono, Mahmud, S. M., Chit, A., van Aalst, R., Kwong, J. C., Mitsakakis, N., Skinner, L., Thommes, E., Bricout, H., and Grootendorst, P., Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study, Vaccine X, vol. 4, p. 100054, 2020.
D. Ilo, Raluy-Callado, M., Graham-Clarke, P., Sadasivan, R., Birt, J., Donaldson, R., Zhu, E., Kirby, M. G., and Neasham, D., Patient characteristics and treatment patterns for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction or co-occurring benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction in general practices in the UK: a retrospective observational study, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 69, pp. 853-62, 2015.
S. Lay-Flurrie, Mathieu, E., Bankhead, C., Nicholson, B. D., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Salisbury, C., Patient consultation rate and clinical and NHS outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care data from 2.7 million patients in 238 practices, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 19, p. 219, 2019.
M. J. Ridd, Ferreira, D. L., Montgomery, A. A., Salisbury, C., and Hamilton, W., Patient-doctor continuity and diagnosis of cancer: electronic medical records study in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 65, pp. e305-11, 2015.
S. Stevens, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T. A., Salisbury, C., and Hobbs, F. D. R., Patient-level and practice-level factors associated with consultation duration: a cross-sectional analysis of over one million consultations in English primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e018261, 2017.
R. K. Hernandez, Do, T. P., Critchlow, C. W., Dent, R. E., and Jick, S. S., Patient-related risk factors for fracture-healing complications in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Acta Orthop, vol. 83, pp. 653-60, 2012.
A. Lane, Metcalfe, C., Young, G. J., Peters, T. J., Blazeby, J., Avery, K. N., Dedman, D., Down, L., Mason, M. D., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., and Donovan, J. L., Patient-reported outcomes in the ProtecT randomized trial of clinically localized prostate cancer treatments: study design, and baseline urinary, bowel and sexual function and quality of life, BJU Int, vol. 118, pp. 869-879, 2016.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., Brindle, P., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Patients who discontinued statin treatment: a protocol for cohort study using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008701, 2015.
N. N. Mehta, Azfar, R. S., Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Patients with severe psoriasis are at increased risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study using the General Practice Research Database, Eur Heart J, vol. 31, pp. 1000-6, 2010.
C. J. Girman, Kou, T. D., Cai, B., Alexander, C. M., O'Neill, E. A., Williams-Herman, D. E., and Katz, L., Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher risk for acute pancreatitis compared with those without diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 12, pp. 766-71, 2010.
B. Zhang, de Vries, F., Setakis, E., and van Staa, T. P., The pattern of risk of myocardial infarction in patients taking asthma medication: a study with the General Practice Research Database, J Hypertens, vol. 27, pp. 1485-92, 2009.
H. J. I. De Jong, Tervaert, J. W. Cohen, Lalmohamed, A., de Vries, F., Vandebriel, R. J., Van Loveren, H., Klungel, O. H., and van Staa, T. P., Pattern of risks of rheumatoid arthritis among patients using statins: A cohort study with the clinical practice research datalink, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0193297, 2018.
H. J. I. De Jong, van Staa, T. P., Lalmohamed, A., de Vries, F., Vandebriel, R. J., Van Loveren, H., Klungel, O. H., and Tervaert, J. W. Cohen, Pattern of risks of systemic lupus erythematosus among statin users: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 76, pp. 1723-1730, 2017.
T. P. Chu, Shah, A., Walker, D., and Coleman, M. P., Pattern of symptoms and signs of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults: a record linkage study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 1115-22, 2015.
T. P. C. Chu, Moran, G. W., and Card, T. R., The Pattern of Underlying Cause of Death in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in England: A Record Linkage Study, J Crohns Colitis, vol. 11, pp. 578-585, 2017.
J. Tran, Norton, R., Conrad, N., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Nazarzadeh, M., and Rahimi, K., Patterns and temporal trends of comorbidity among adult patients with incident cardiovascular disease in the UK between 2000 and 2014: A population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002513, 2018.
H. A. van den Ham, Klungel, O. H., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., The patterns of anticoagulation control and the risk of stroke, bleeding and mortality in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, J Thromb Haemost, vol. 11, pp. 107-15, 2013.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., Beynon, J., and Donegan, K., Patterns of anti-diabetic medication use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in England and Wales, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 127-135, 2017.
J. B. Soriano, Visick, G. T., Muellerova, H., Payvandi, N., and Hansell, A. L., Patterns of comorbidities in newly diagnosed COPD and asthma in primary care, Chest, vol. 128, pp. 2099-107, 2005.
C. Siffel, Page, M., Maxwell, T., Thun, B., Kolb, N., Rosenlund, M., von Bredow, D., and Keja, J., Patterns of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2020.
C. R. Gale, Edington, J., Coles, S. J., and Martyn, C. N., Patterns of prescribing of nutritional supplements in the United Kingdom, Clin Nutr, vol. 20, pp. 333-7, 2001.
A. V. Margulis, Kang, E. M., and Hammad, T. A., Patterns of prescription of antidepressants and antipsychotics across and within pregnancies in a population-based UK cohort, Matern Child Health J, vol. 18, pp. 1742-52, 2014.
B. Ineichen, Logie, J., Rowlands, S., and Lawrenson, R., Patterns of prescription of PC4 by general practitioners in England and Wales, Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care, vol. 5, pp. 241-7, 2000.
A. Lalmohamed, Macgregor, A. J., de Vries, F., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Patterns of risk of cancer in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements versus other bearing surface types: a record linkage study between a prospective joint registry and general practice electronic health records in England, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e65891, 2013.
Y. Chen, Farooq, S., Edwards, J., Chew-Graham, C. A., Shiers, D., Frisher, M., Hayward, R., Sumathipala, A., and Jordan, K. P., Patterns of symptoms before a diagnosis of first episode psychosis: a latent class analysis of UK primary care electronic health records, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 227, 2019.
A. V. Margulis, Linder, M., Arana, A., Pottegard, A., Berglind, I. A., Bui, C. L., Kristiansen, N. S., Bahmanyar, S., McQuay, L. J., Atsma, W. J., Appenteng, K., D'Silva, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Hallas, J., Patterns of use of antimuscarinic drugs to treat overactive bladder in Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0204456, 2018.
C. Millett, Bottle, A., Ng, A., Curcin, V., Molokhia, M., Saxena, S., and Majeed, A., Pay for perfomance and the quality of diabetes management in individuals with and without co-morbid medical conditions, J R Soc Med, vol. 102, pp. 369-77, 2009.
J. Y. Kang, Tinto, A., Higham, J., and Majeed, A., Peptic ulceration in general practice in England and Wales 1994-98: period prevalence and drug management, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 16, pp. 1067-74, 2002.
A. W. Lim, Hamilton, W., Hollingworth, A., Stapley, S., and Sasieni, P., Performance characteristics of visualising the cervix in symptomatic young females: a review of primary care records in females with and without cervical cancer, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e189-92, 2016.
J. Hippisley-Cox, Coupland, C., and Brindle, P., The performance of seven QPrediction risk scores in an independent external sample of patients from general practice: a validation study, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005809, 2014.
L. McDonald, Schultze, A., Carroll, R., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Performing studies using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: to link or not to link?, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 33, pp. 601-605, 2018.
F. A. Achana, Fleming, K. M., Tata, L. J., Sultan, A. A., and Petrou, S., Peripartum hysterectomy: an economic analysis of direct healthcare costs using routinely collected data, Bjog, vol. 125, pp. 874-883, 2018.
C. R. Chapple, Nazir, J., Hakimi, Z., Bowditch, S., Fatoye, F., Guelfucci, F., Khemiri, A., Siddiqui, E., and Wagg, A., Persistence and Adherence with Mirabegron versus Antimuscarinic Agents in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Retrospective Observational Study in UK Clinical Practice, Eur Urol, vol. 72, pp. 389-399, 2017.
J. Morley, Moayyeri, A., Ali, L., Taylor, A., Feudjo-Tepie, M., Hamilton, L., and Bayly, J., Persistence and compliance with osteoporosis therapies among postmenopausal women in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Osteoporos Int, 2019.
L. Li, Roddam, A., Gitlin, M., Taylor, A., Shepherd, S., Shearer, A., and Jick, S., Persistence with osteoporosis medications among postmenopausal women in the UK General Practice Research Database, Menopause, vol. 19, pp. 33-40, 2012.
Z. Zhou, Althin, R., Sforzolini, B. S., and Dhawan, R., Persistency and treatment failure in newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma patients in the United Kingdom, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 88, pp. 1391-4, 2004.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Persistent postoperative pain and healthcare costs associated with instrumented and non-instrumented spinal surgery: a case-control study, J Orthop Surg Res, vol. 15, p. 127, 2020.
D. J. Torgerson, Sykes, D., Puffer, S., Brown, P., and Cooper, C., Pharmaceutical treatment of symptomatic vertebral fractures in primary care, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 63, pp. 853-6, 2004.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]