Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 December 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 216 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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J. Watson, Whiting, P., Salisbury, C., Banks, J., and Hamilton, W., Raised inflammatory markers as a predictor of one-year mortality: a cohort study in primary care in the UK using electronic health record data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036027, 2020.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real world effects of COPD medications: a cohort study with validation against RCT results, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Bakhai, Petri, H., Vahidnia, F., Wolf, C., Ding, Y., Foskett, N., and Sculpher, M., Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England, J Eval Clin Pract, 2020.
A. Seesaghur, Petruski-Ivleva, N., Banks, V., Wang, J. R., Mattox, P., Hoeben, E., Maskell, J., Neasham, D., Reynolds, S. L., and Kafatos, G., Real-world reproducibility study characterizing patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK-based electronic health records database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
R. Lahoz, Fagan, A., McSharry, M., Proudfoot, C., Corda, S., and Studer, R., Recurrent heart failure hospitalizations are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, ESC Heart Fail, 2020.
A. Price, Ford, T., Janssens, A., Williams, A. J., and Newlove-Delgado, T., Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BJPsych Open, vol. 6, p. e7, 2020.
G. C. Meier, Watkins, J., McEwan, P., and Pockett, R. D., Resource use and direct medical costs of acute respiratory illness in the UK based on linked primary and secondary care records from 2001 to 2009, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236472, 2020.
L. Manikam, Schilder, A. G. M., Lakhanpaul, M., Littlejohns, P., Alexander, E. C., and Hayward, A., Respiratory tract infection-related healthcare utilisation in children with Down's syndrome, Infection, vol. 48, pp. 403-410, 2020.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatological conditions as risk factors for self-harm: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
A. K. Wright, Suarez-Ortegon, M. F., Read, S. H., Kontopantelis, E., Buchan, I., Emsley, R., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., Wild, S. H., and Rutter, M. K., Risk Factor Control and Cardiovascular Event Risk in People With Type 2 Diabetes in Primary and Secondary Prevention Settings, Circulation, vol. 142, pp. 1925-1936, 2020.
A. P. McGovern, Hogg, M., Shields, B. M., Sattar, N. A., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Dennis, J. M., Risk factors for genital infections in people initiating SGLT2 inhibitors and their impact on discontinuation, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. A. Lawson, Zaccardi, F., Squire, I., Okhai, H., Davies, M., Huang, W., Mamas, M., Lam, C. S. P., Khunti, K., and Kadam, U. T., Risk Factors for Heart Failure: 20-Year Population-Based Trends by Sex, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity, Circ Heart Fail, vol. 13, p. e006472, 2020.
D. A. Enoch, Murray-Thomas, T., Adomakoh, N., Dedman, D., Georgopali, A., Francis, N., and Karas, A., Risk of complications and mortality following recurrent and non-recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a retrospective, observational, database study in England, J Hosp Infect, 2020.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
Z. Z. N. Yiu, Parisi, R., Lunt, M., Warren, R. B., Griffiths, C. E. M., Langan, S. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Hospitalisation and Death due to Infection in People with Psoriasis: a Population-based Cohort Study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
Y. Zhang, Souverein, P. C., Gardarsdottir, H., van den Ham, H. A., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, and de Boer, A., Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
K. H. Thomas, Davies, N. M., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., and Douglas, I., Risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular adverse events following treatment with varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: a case-crossover study, Addiction, 2020.
I. J. A. de Bruin, Wyers, C. E., Souverein, P. C., van Staa, T. P., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of new fragility fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease and hip fracture-a population-based cohort study in the UK, Osteoporos Int, 2020.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of osteoarthritis in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, Shaw, D. E., and McKeever, T. M., Risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma due to oral and inhaled corticosteroids: two population-based nested case-control studies, Thorax, 2020.
T. A. Althunian, de Boer, A., Groenwold, R. H. H., Rengerink, K. O., Souverein, P. C., and Klungel, O. H., Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
A. Gayle, Tebboth, A., Pang, M., Guelfucci, F., Argoubi, R., Sherman, S., and Mak, V., Real-life prescribing of asthmatic treatments in UK general practice over time using 2014 BTS/SIGN steps, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 29, p. 25, 2019.
C. Linde, Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., McEwan, P., Ayoubkhani, D., and Qin, L., Real-World Associations of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitor Dose, Hyperkalemia, and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Patients With New-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease or Heart Failure in the United Kingdom, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e012655, 2019.
E. A. Shephard, Parkinson, M. A., and Hamilton, W. T., Recognising laryngeal cancer in primary care: a large case-control study using electronic records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e127-e133, 2019.
X. Sun and Gulliford, M. C., Reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England from 2014 to 2017: population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023989, 2019.
A. Rao, Kim, D., Darzi, A., Majeed, A., Aylin, P., and Bottle, A., Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
Y. Li, Molter, A., White, A., Welfare, W., Palin, V., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., Sperrin, M., and van Staa, T. P., Relationship between prescribing of antibiotics and other medicines in primary care: a cross-sectional study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e42-e51, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Stamp, E., Sammon, C. J., Besford, M., Carroll, R., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., Renal function and oral anticoagulant treatment of incident non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a retrospective study, Future Cardiol, 2019.
S. Weir, Kuo, T. C., Samnaliev, M., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Reoperation following lumbar spinal surgery: costs and outcomes in a UK population cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), Eur Spine J, 2019.
T. Newlove-Delgado, Ford, T. J., Hamilton, W., Janssens, A., Stein, K., and Ukoumunne, O. C., Resumption of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication in early adulthood: findings from a UK primary care prescribing study, Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2019.
A. Uijl, Koudstaal, S., Direk, K., Denaxas, S., Groenwold, R. H. H., Banerjee, A., Hoes, A. W., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., Risk factors for incident heart failure in age- and sex-specific strata: a population-based cohort using linked electronic health records, Eur J Heart Fail, 2019.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Ashworth, J., Hayward, R. A., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Risk of adverse events in patients prescribed long-term opioids: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Pain, 2019.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
J. B. Wetmore, Yan, H., Horne, L., Peng, Y., and Gilbertson, D. T., Risk of hyperkalemia from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and factors associated with treatment discontinuities in a real-world population, Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2019.
E. Williamson, Denaxas, S., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Direk, K., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Little, P., Lund, V., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Hopkins, C., and Carpenter, J., Risk of mortality and cardiovascular events following macrolide prescription in chronic rhinosinusitis patients: a cohort study using linked primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
R. Alikhan, Lefevre, C., Menown, I., Lister, S., Bird, A., You, M., Evans, D., and Sammon, C., Risk of Recurrent Bleeding Events in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Vitamin K Antagonists: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink Study, TH Open, vol. 3, pp. e316-e324, 2019.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., West, J., and Humes, D. J., The risk of venous thromboembolism after surgery for esophagogastric malignancy and the impact of chemotherapy: a population-based cohort study, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
J. Voorham, Roche, N., Benhaddi, H., van der Tol, M., Carter, V., van Boven, J. F. M., Bjermer, L., Miravitlles, M., and Price, D. B., Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022051, 2018.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real-world effects of medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019475, 2018.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Hayhoe, B., Real-world presentation with heart failure in primary care: do patients selected to follow diagnostic and management guidelines have better outcomes?, Open Heart, vol. 5, p. e000935, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Moore, E., Lewis, A., Hashmi, M., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Smeeth, L., Chatzidiakou, L., Jones, R., Beevers, S., Kolozali, S., Kelly, F., and Barratt, B., Recruitment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for research, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 21, 2018.
S. R. Markar, Arhi, C., Wiggins, T., Vidal-Diez, A., Karthikesalingam, A., Darzi, A., Lagergren, J., and Hanna, G. B., Reintervention After Antireflux Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in England, Ann Surg, 2018.
G. Geulayov, Ferrey, A., Casey, D., Wells, C., Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Gunnell, D., Clements, C., Kapur, N., Ness, J., Waters, K., and Hawton, K., Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines and hypnotics commonly used for self-poisoning: An epidemiological study of fatal toxicity and case fatality, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 32, pp. 654-662, 2018.
A. E. Ferrey, Geulayov, G., Casey, D., Wells, C., Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Ness, J., Clements, C., Gunnell, D., Kapur, N., and Hawton, K., Relative toxicity of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics: case fatality and fatal toxicity associated with self-poisoning, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 18, p. 399, 2018.
G. Dell'Agnello, Desai, U., Kirson, N. Y., Wen, J., Meiselbach, M. K., Reed, C. C., Belger, M., Lenox-Smith, A., Martinez, C., and Rasmussen, J., Reliability of coded data to identify earliest indications of cognitive decline, cognitive evaluation and Alzheimer's disease diagnosis: a pilot study in England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019684, 2018.
R. Costello, Jacklin, C., M. Evans, J., McBeth, J., and Dixon, W. G., Representativeness of a digitally engaged population and a patient organisation population with rheumatoid arthritis and their willingness to participate in research: a cross-sectional study, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000664, 2018.
S. Rajaram, Wiecek, W., Lawson, R., Blak, B., Zhao, Y., Hackett, J., Brody, R., Salimi, T., Amzal, B., and Patel, V., A retrospective observational analysis of post-pandemic influenza-related outcomes in the United Kingdom, 2010-2014, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol. 14, pp. 368-377, 2018.
A. Abhishek, Nakafero, G., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Grainge, M. J., and Doherty, M., Rheumatoid arthritis and excess mortality: down but not out. A primary care cohort study using data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 977-981, 2018.
S. Gale, Wilson, J. C., Chia, J., Trinh, H., Tuckwell, K., Collinson, N., Dimonaco, S., Jick, S., Meier, C., Mohan, S. V., and Sarsour, K., Risk Associated with Cumulative Oral Glucocorticoid Use in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis in Real-World Databases from the USA and UK, Rheumatol Ther, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 4 December 2020]