Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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F. N. Aberra, Stettler, N., Brensinger, C., Lichtenstein, G. R., and Lewis, J. D., Risk for active tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 5, pp. 1070-5, 2007.
A. Abhishek, Nakafero, G., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Grainge, M. J., and Doherty, M., Rheumatoid arthritis and excess mortality: down but not out. A primary care cohort study using data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 977-981, 2018.
A. Abhishek, Doherty, M., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., and Grainge, M. J., Rheumatoid arthritis is getting less frequent-results of a nationwide population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 736-744, 2017.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., West, J., and Humes, D. J., The risk of venous thromboembolism after surgery for esophagogastric malignancy and the impact of chemotherapy: a population-based cohort study, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002652, 2018.
R. Alikhan, Lefevre, C., Menown, I., Lister, S., Bird, A., You, M., Evans, D., and Sammon, C., Risk of Recurrent Bleeding Events in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Vitamin K Antagonists: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink Study, TH Open, vol. 3, pp. e316-e324, 2019.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Olek, M. J., Ascherio, A., Jick, H., and Hernan, M. A., Recent use of oral contraceptives and the risk of multiple sclerosis, Arch Neurol, vol. 62, pp. 1362-5, 2005.
T. A. Althunian, de Boer, A., Groenwold, R. H. H., Rengerink, K. O., Souverein, P. C., and Klungel, O. H., Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
F. Andersohn, Waring, M., and Garbe, E., Risk of ischemic stroke in patients with Crohn's disease: a population-based nested case-control study, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1387-92, 2010.
A. J. Apter, Kinman, J. L., Bilker, W. B., Herlim, M., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., and Strom, B. L., Represcription of penicillin after allergic-like events, J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol. 113, pp. 764-70, 2004.
A. Arana, Johannes, C. B., McQuay, L. J., Varas-Lorenzo, C., Fife, D., and Rothman, K. J., Risk of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death in Users of Domperidone, Proton Pump Inhibitors, or Metoclopramide: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study, Drug Saf, vol. 38, pp. 1187-99, 2015.
R. G. Armstrong, West, J., and Card, T. R., Risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine: a UK population-based case-control study, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 105, pp. 1604-9, 2010.
D. Armstrong, Ashworth, M., Dregan, A., and White, P., The relationship between prior antimicrobial prescription and meningitis: a case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e228-33, 2016.
E. L. Axson, Bual, N., Bloom, C. I., and Quint, J. K., Risk factors and secondary care utilisation in a primary care population with non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease in the UK, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2018.
A. Bakhai, Petri, H., Vahidnia, F., Wolf, C., Ding, Y., Foskett, N., and Sculpher, M., Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England, J Eval Clin Pract, 2020.
L. Baril, Rosillon, D., Willame, C., Angelo, M. G., Zima, J., van den Bosch, J. H., Van Staa, T., Boggon, R., Bunge, E. M., Hernandez-Diaz, S., and Chambers, C. D., Risk of spontaneous abortion and other pregnancy outcomes in 15-25 year old women exposed to human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in the United Kingdom, Vaccine, vol. 33, pp. 6884-91, 2015.
M. T. Bazelier, Van Staa, T., Uitdehaag, B. M., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., Vestergaard, P., Bentzen, J., and de Vries, F., The risk of fracture in patients with multiple sclerosis: the UK general practice research database, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 26, pp. 2271-9, 2011.
M. T. Bazelier, Mueller-Schotte, S., Leufkens, H. G., Uitdehaag, B. M., Van Staa, T., and de Vries, F., Risk of cataract and glaucoma in patients with multiple sclerosis, Mult Scler, vol. 18, pp. 628-38, 2012.
M. T. Bazelier, de Vries, F., Vestergaard, P., Herings, R. M., Gallagher, A. M., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Risk of fracture with thiazolidinediones: an individual patient data meta-analysis, Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), vol. 4, p. 11, 2013.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Almqvist, P. M., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., The risk of newly diagnosed asthma in migraineurs with or without previous triptan prescriptions, Headache, vol. 48, pp. 606-10, 2008.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of stroke in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol. 16, pp. 31-5, 2010.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of incident depression in patients with Parkinson disease in the UK, Eur J Neurol, vol. 18, pp. 448-53, 2011.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Ashworth, J., Hayward, R. A., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Risk of adverse events in patients prescribed long-term opioids: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Pain, 2019.
E. Berni, de Voogd, H., Halcox, J. P., Butler, C. C., Bannister, C. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., Jones, B., Ouwens, M., and Currie, C. J., Risk of cardiovascular events, arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin versus alternative antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013398, 2017.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 325, pp. 419-21, 2002.
M. Blagojevic-Bucknall, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hayward, R., West, S., Choi, H., and Roddy, E., The risk of gout among patients with sleep apnea: a matched cohort study, Arthritis Rheumatol, 2018.
M. Bloechliger, Ceschi, A., Ruegg, S., Kupferschmidt, H., Kraehenbuehl, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Risk of Seizures Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Follow-up Study with a Nested Case-Control Analysis Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Drug Saf, vol. 39, pp. 307-21, 2016.
R. Boggon, Lip, G. Y., Gallagher, A. M., and van Staa, T. P., Resource utilization and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a case control study, Appl Health Econ Health Policy, vol. 10, pp. 249-59, 2012.
D. Bornand, Toovey, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., The risk of new onset depression in association with influenza–A population-based observational study, Brain Behav Immun, vol. 53, pp. 131-137, 2016.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P., Cowie, M. R., Majeed, A., and Hayhoe, B., Routes to diagnosis of heart failure: observational study using linked data in England, Heart, vol. 104, pp. 600-605, 2018.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Hayhoe, B., Real-world presentation with heart failure in primary care: do patients selected to follow diagnostic and management guidelines have better outcomes?, Open Heart, vol. 5, p. e000935, 2018.
G. Bouras, Burns, E. M., Howell, A. M., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., and Darzi, A., Risk of Post-Discharge Venous Thromboembolism and Associated Mortality in General Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using Linked Hospital and Primary Care Data in England, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0145759, 2015.
S. Bours, de Vries, F., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Lalmohamed, A., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G. M., Geusens, P. P. P., Drent, M., and Harvey, N. C., Risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based cohort, Osteoporos Int, vol. 27, pp. 1603-1610, 2016.
D. C. Braeken, Rohde, G. G., Franssen, F. M., Driessen, J. H., van Staa, T. P., Souverein, P. C., Wouters, E. F., and de Vries, F., Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stratified by smoking status: a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 12, pp. 2425-2432, 2017.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Klungel, O., Reynolds, R., M. Tepie, F., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 39-46, 2016.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
T. Burkard, Hugle, T., Layton, J. B., Glynn, R. J., Bloechliger, M., Frey, N., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Risk of Incident Osteoarthritis of the Hand in Statin Initiators: A Sequential Cohort Study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 70, pp. 1795-1805, 2018.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
I. M. Carey, Critchley, J. A., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Risk of Infection in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Compared With the General Population: A Matched Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 513-521, 2018.
J. Castellsague, Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Duque, A., and Perez, S., Risk of serious skin disorders among users of oral antifungals: a population-based study, BMC Dermatol, vol. 2, p. 14, 2002.
J. Castellsague, S. Gutthann, P., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Recent epidemiological studies of the association between hormone replacement therapy and venous thromboembolism. A review, Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 117-23, 1998.
C. V. Chalitsios, Shaw, D. E., and McKeever, T. M., Risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma due to oral and inhaled corticosteroids: two population-based nested case-control studies, Thorax, 2020.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2018.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C. H., and McHugh, N., Risk of uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease in people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 77, pp. 277-280, 2018.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of osteoarthritis in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2020.
T. P. C. Chu, Grainge, M. J., and Card, T. R., The risk of venous thromboembolism during and after hospitalisation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease activity, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 48, pp. 1099-1108, 2018.
H. Close, Mason, J. M., Wilson, D. W., Hungin, A. P., Jones, R., and Rubin, G., Risk of Ischaemic Heart Disease in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Cohort Study Using the General Practice Research Database, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0139745, 2015.
H. Close, Reilly, J., Mason, J. M., Kripalani, M., Wilson, D., Main, J., and Hungin, A. P., Renal failure in lithium-treated bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e90169, 2014.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]