Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Journal Article
J. Watson, Whiting, P., Salisbury, C., Banks, J., and Hamilton, W., Raised inflammatory markers as a predictor of one-year mortality: a cohort study in primary care in the UK using electronic health record data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036027, 2020.
K. M. Fleming, Aithal, G. P., Card, T. R., and West, J., The rate of decompensation and clinical progression of disease in people with cirrhosis: a cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 32, pp. 1343-50, 2010.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., Fombonne, P. E., Heavey, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Smith, P. G., and Hall, A. J., Rate of first recorded diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in United Kingdom general practice, 1988 to 2001, BMC Med, vol. 2, p. 39, 2004.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. - C., Choitir, C. N., Tierney, T. S., Taylor, R. S., Manca, A., Bruce, J., Cumming, D., and Eldabe, S., The rate of persistent post-operative pain (FBSS) in revision lumbar spinal surgery, The Spine Journal, vol. 17, p. S10, 2017.
H. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., and Egger, P., Rate of suicide in patients taking montelukast, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 29, pp. 165-6, 2009.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
R. Krishnamoorthi, Borah, B., Heien, H., Das, A., Chak, A., and Iyer, P. G., Rates and predictors of progression to esophageal carcinoma in a large population-based Barrett's esophagus cohort, Gastrointest Endosc, vol. 84, pp. 40-46.e7, 2016.
J. M. Khalid, Raluy-Callado, M., Curtis, B. H., Boye, K. S., Maguire, A., and Reaney, M., Rates and risk of hospitalisation among patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database linked to English Hospital Episode Statistics, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 68, pp. 40-8, 2014.
K. W. Hagberg, Li, L., Peng, M., Paris, M., Shah, K., and Jick, S. S., Rates of Cancers and Opportunistic Infections in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Compared With Patients Without Psoriatic Arthritis, J Clin Rheumatol, vol. 22, pp. 241-7, 2016.
L. Li, Hagberg, K. W., Peng, M., Shah, K., Paris, M., and Jick, S., Rates of Cardiovascular Disease and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Compared to Patients Without Psoriatic Arthritis, J Clin Rheumatol, vol. 21, pp. 405-10, 2015.
T. Van Staa, Abenhaim, L., and Monette, J., Rates of hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylureas, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 50, pp. 735-41, 1997.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., Bashford, J., Norwood, J., and Millson, D., Ratio of inhaled corticosteroid to bronchodilator treatment and asthma hospitalisation, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 16, pp. 8-13, 2000.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real world effects of COPD medications: a cohort study with validation against RCT results, Eur Respir J, 2020.
J. O. Oyinlola, Campbell, J., and Kousoulis, A. A., Is real world evidence influencing practice? A systematic review of CPRD research in NICE guidances, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 16, p. 299, 2016.
A. Gayle, Tebboth, A., Pang, M., Guelfucci, F., Argoubi, R., Sherman, S., and Mak, V., Real-life prescribing of asthmatic treatments in UK general practice over time using 2014 BTS/SIGN steps, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 29, p. 25, 2019.
C. Linde, Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., McEwan, P., Ayoubkhani, D., and Qin, L., Real-World Associations of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitor Dose, Hyperkalemia, and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Patients With New-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease or Heart Failure in the United Kingdom, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e012655, 2019.
J. van Boven, Benhaddi, H., Roche, N., Bjermer, L., Miravitlles, M., Voorham, J., and Price, D., Real-world cost effectiveness comparison of symbicort turbuhaler and duoresp spiromax in UK patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A645, 2017.
A. Bakhai, Petri, H., Vahidnia, F., Wolf, C., Ding, Y., Foskett, N., and Sculpher, M., Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England, J Eval Clin Pract, 2020.
J. Voorham, Roche, N., Benhaddi, H., van der Tol, M., Carter, V., van Boven, J. F. M., Bjermer, L., Miravitlles, M., and Price, D. B., Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022051, 2018.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real-world effects of medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019475, 2018.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Hayhoe, B., Real-world presentation with heart failure in primary care: do patients selected to follow diagnostic and management guidelines have better outcomes?, Open Heart, vol. 5, p. e000935, 2018.
A. Seesaghur, Petruski-Ivleva, N., Banks, V., Wang, J. R., Mattox, P., Hoeben, E., Maskell, J., Neasham, D., Reynolds, S. L., and Kafatos, G., Real-world reproducibility study characterizing patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK-based electronic health records database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
D. Lambrelli, Merinopoulou, E., Donaldson, R., Mardekian, J., Hlavacek, P., Tarasenko, L., Masseria, C., and Hobbs, F. D., Real-world treatment patterns among patients initiating on statins in England, Value in Health, vol. 20, pp. A630-631, 2017.
F. de Vries, de Vries, C., Cooper, C., Leufkens, B., and van Staa, T. P., Reanalysis of two studies with contrasting results on the association between statin use and fracture risk: the General Practice Research Database, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 35, pp. 1301-8, 2006.
S. de Lusignan, Brown, A., and Majeed, A., Recent developments in general practice computing, Clinician in Management, vol. 7, pp. 148-154, 1998.
J. Castellsague, S. Gutthann, P., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Recent epidemiological studies of the association between hormone replacement therapy and venous thromboembolism. A review, Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 117-23, 1998.
V. A. Kiri, Soriano, J., Visick, G., and Fabbri, L., Recent trends in lung cancer and its association with COPD: an analysis using the UK GP Research Database, Prim Care Respir J, vol. 19, pp. 57-61, 2010.
J. B. Soriano, Maier, W. C., Egger, P., Visick, G., Thakrar, B., Sykes, J., and Pride, N. B., Recent trends in physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK, Thorax, vol. 55, pp. 789-94, 2000.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., Olek, M. J., Ascherio, A., Jick, H., and Hernan, M. A., Recent use of oral contraceptives and the risk of multiple sclerosis, Arch Neurol, vol. 62, pp. 1362-5, 2005.
A. Moore, Harnden, A., and Mayon-White, R., Recognising Kawasaki disease in UK primary care: a descriptive study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 64, pp. e477-83, 2014.
E. A. Shephard, Parkinson, M. A., and Hamilton, W. T., Recognising laryngeal cancer in primary care: a large case-control study using electronic records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e127-e133, 2019.
M. A. Hernan, Jick, S. S., Olek, M. J., and Jick, H., Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study, Neurology, vol. 63, pp. 838-42, 2004.
E. Kontopantelis, Reeves, D., Valderas, J. M., Campbell, S., and Doran, T., Recorded quality of primary care for patients with diabetes in England before and after the introduction of a financial incentive scheme: a longitudinal observational study, BMJ Qual Saf, vol. 22, pp. 53-64, 2013.
K. J. Rothnie, Mullerova, H., Thomas, S. L., Chandan, J. S., Smeeth, L., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Quint, J. K., Recording of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD in UK electronic health care records, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 8, pp. 771-782, 2016.
J. K. Quint, Moore, E., Lewis, A., Hashmi, M., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Smeeth, L., Chatzidiakou, L., Jones, R., Beevers, S., Kolozali, S., Kelly, F., and Barratt, B., Recruitment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for research, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 21, 2018.
S. Kiconco, A. Sultan, A., and Grainge, M. J., Recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism and hormone use in women from England: a cohort study using clinical practice research datalink, Br J Haematol, vol. 177, pp. 127-135, 2017.
R. Lahoz, Fagan, A., McSharry, M., Proudfoot, C., Corda, S., and Studer, R., Recurrent heart failure hospitalizations are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, ESC Heart Fail, 2020.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Huerta-Alvarez, C., Reduced incidence of colorectal adenoma among long-term users of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: a pooled analysis of published studies and a new population-based study, Epidemiology, vol. 11, pp. 376-81, 2000.
L. A. Garcia-Rodriguez and Huerta-Alvarez, C., Reduced risk of colorectal cancer among long-term users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, Epidemiology, vol. 12, pp. 88-93, 2001.
X. Sun and Gulliford, M. C., Reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England from 2014 to 2017: population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023989, 2019.
S. Smith, Smith, G. E., Heatlie, H., Bashford, J. N., Ashcroft, D. M., Verlander, N. Q., Duckworth, G. J., Mason, B., Smyth, B., and Maxwell, S., Reducing variation in antibacterial prescribing rates for 'cough/cold' and sore throat between 1993 and 2001: regional analyses using the general practice research database, Public Health, vol. 120, pp. 752-9, 2006.
C. B. Forrest, Majeed, A., Weiner, J. P., Carroll, K., and Bindman, A. B., Referral of children to specialists in the United States and the United kingdom, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 157, pp. 279-85, 2003.
C. Schneider, Jick, S. S., Bothner, U., and Meier, C. R., Reflux disease, gastrointestinal ulcer or weight loss in patients with COPD, Copd, vol. 7, pp. 172-8, 2010.
A. Price, Ford, T., Janssens, A., Williams, A. J., and Newlove-Delgado, T., Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BJPsych Open, vol. 6, p. e7, 2020.
C. J. Edwards, Campbell, J., Van Staa, T., and Arden, N. K., Regional and temporal variation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis across the UK: a descriptive register-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 2, 2012.
A. Rao, Kim, D., Darzi, A., Majeed, A., Aylin, P., and Bottle, A., Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
H. B. Mehta, Mehta, V., Girman, C. J., Adhikari, D., and Johnson, M. L., Regression coefficient-based scoring system should be used to assign weights to the risk index, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 79, pp. 22-28, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Parisi, R., Olier, I., Reeves, D., and Kontopantelis, E., rEHR: An R package for manipulating and analysing Electronic Health Record data, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0171784, 2017.
S. R. Markar, Arhi, C., Wiggins, T., Vidal-Diez, A., Karthikesalingam, A., Darzi, A., Lagergren, J., and Hanna, G. B., Reintervention After Antireflux Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in England, Ann Surg, 2018.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 325, pp. 419-21, 2002.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]