Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 May 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF May 2024 (PDF, 3.7MB, 317 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB May 2024 (BIB, 1.8MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Year Title Sort descending

"Determinants of treatment modification before and after implementation of the updated 2015 NICE guideline on type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study"


Authors: J. van Dalem, Cgj Brouwers, A. Burden, D. C, O. Klungel, F. de Vries, Hm Driessen


"Take up to eight tablets per day": Incorporating free-text medication instructions into a transparent and reproducible process for preparing drug exposure data for pharmacoepidemiology


Authors: M. Jani, B. Yimer, D. Selby, M. Lunt, G. Nenadic, W. Dixon


"Use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, changes in body mass index and risk of fracture: a population-based cohort study"


Authors: J. van Dalem, Cc Werkman, J. van den Bergh, B. Rossi, R. Viggers, R. Eastell, A. Burden, D. C, O. Klungel, Cgj Brouwers, Hm Driessen


1 and 5 year survival estimates for people with cirrhosis of the liver in England, 1998-2009: a large population study


Authors: S. Ratib, K. Fleming, C. Crooks, G. Aithal, J. West


20-year trends in cause-specific heart failure outcomes by sex, socioeconomic status, and place of diagnosis: a population-based study


Authors: C. Lawson, F. Zaccardi, I. Squire, S. Ling, M. Davies, C. Lam, M. Mamas, K. Khunti, U. Kadam


5-Alpha reductase inhibition provides superior benefits to alpha blockade by preventing AUR and BPH-related surgery


Authors: P. Boyle, C. Roehrborn, R. Harkaway, J. Logie, J. de la Rosette, M. Emberton


5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors and Risk of Kidney and Bladder Cancers in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: N. Doherty, C. Cardwell, P. Murchie, C. Hill, L. Azoulay, B. Hicks


5-Aminosalicylate use and colorectal cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease: a large epidemiological study


Authors: T. van Staa, T. Card, R. Logan, H. Leufkens


5-Aminosalicylates, sulfasalazine, steroid use, and complications in patients with ulcerative colitis

Authors: A. Walker, P. Szneke, L. Bianchi, L. Field, L. Sutherland, N. Dreyer


5-aminosalicylic acids and the risk of renal disease: a large British epidemiologic study

Authors: T. van Staa, S. Travis, H. Leufkens, R. Logan


5-year mental health outcomes for children and adolescents presenting with psychiatric symptoms to general practitioners in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Senior, M. Pierce, V. Taxiarchi, S. Garg, D. Edge, T. Newlove-Delgado, S. Neufeld, K. Abel


5-α reductase inhibitors and the risk of anaemia among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A population-based cohort study


Authors: H. Ayele, A. Douros, K. Filion


5alpha-Reductase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cancer-Related Mortality in Men With Prostate Cancer


Authors: L. Azoulay, M. Eberg, S. Benayoun, M. Pollak


A 15-year overview of increasing tramadol utilisation and associated mortality and the impact of tramadol classification in the United Kingdom


Authors: T. Chen, L. Chen, R. Knaggs


A case control study of age related macular degeneration and use of statins


Authors: L. Smeeth, C. Cook, U. Chakravarthy, R. Hubbard, A. Fletcher


A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

Authors: L. Smeeth, A. Hall, E. Fombonne, L. Rodrigues, X. Huang, P. Smith


A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration


Authors: I. Douglas, C. Cook, U. Chakravarthy, R. Hubbard, A. Fletcher, L. Smeeth


A challenge to all. A primer on inter-country differences of high-need, high-cost patients


Authors: M. Tanke, Y. Feyman, E. Bernal-Delgado, S. Deeny, Y. Imanaka, P. Jeurissen, L. Lange, A. Pimperl, N. Sasaki, M. Schull, J. Wammes, W. Wodchis, G. Meyer


A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service


Authors: V. Kuan, S. Denaxas, Gonzalez- Izquierdo, K Direk, O Bhatti, S. Husain, S. Sutaria, M. Hingorani, D. Nitsch, C.A. Parisinos, T. Lumbers, R. Mathur, R. Sofat, J.P. Casas, I.C.K. Wong, H. Hemingway, A.D. Hingorani


A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder


Authors: J. Chollet, D. Saragoussi, E. Clay, C. Francois


A cohort study of comorbidity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis


Authors: L. Li, T. Neogi, S. Jick


A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database


Authors: P. Mangtani, P. Cumberland, C. Hodgson, J. Roberts, F. Cutts, A. Hall


A cohort study of the ocular safety of anti-ulcer drugs

Authors: L. Rodriguez, S. Mannino, M. Wallander, B. Lindblom


A cohort study on the risk of acute liver injury among users of ketoconazole and other antifungal drugs

Authors: L. Rodriguez, A. Duque, J. Castellsague, S. Perez-Gutthann, B. Stricker


A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study)


Authors: J. Castellsague, J. Kuiper, A. Pottegard, Anveden Berglind, D. Dedman, L. Gutierrez, B. Calingaert, M. van Herk-Sukel, J. Hallas, A. Sundstrom, A. Gallagher, J. Kaye, C. Pardo, K. Rothman, S. Perez-Gutthann


A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Risk of Hospitalisation for Congestive Heart Failure Associated with the Use of Aclidinium and Other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Medications in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Rebordosa, E. Plana, A. Rubino, J. Aguado, A. Lei, S. Daoud, N. Saigi-Morgui, S. Perez-Gutthann, E. Rivero-Ferrer


A combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiology approach to identify existing medications with breast cancer causing or preventing properties


Authors: J. Busby, L. Murray, K. Mills, S. Zhang, F. Liberante, C. Cardwell


A comparison of cost effectiveness using data from randomized trials or actual clinical practice: selective cox-2 inhibitors as an example


Authors: T. van Staa, H. Leufkens, B. Zhang, L. Smeeth


A comparison of four self-controlled study designs in an analysis of COVID-19 vaccines and myocarditis using five European databases


Authors: A. Schultze, I. Martin, D. Messina, S. Bots, S. Belitser, José Carreras-Martínez, E. Correcher-Martinez, A. Urchueguía-Fornes, M. Martin-Perez, P. García-Poza, F. Villalobos, M. Pallejà-Millán, Alberto Bissacco, E. Segundo, P. Souverein, F. Riefolo, C. Durán, R. Gini, M. Sturkenboom, O. Klungel, I. Douglas


A comparison of methods for estimating the temporal change in a continuous variable: Example of HbA1c in patients with diabetes


Authors: T. Sheppard, R. Tamblyn, M. Abrahamowicz, M. Lunt, M. Sperrin, W. Dixon


A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population


Authors: L. Hassan, J. Senior, M. Frisher, D. Edge, J. Shaw


A comparison of risk stratification schemes for stroke in 79,884 atrial fibrillation patients in general practice


Authors: T. van Staa, E. Setakis, G. Di Tanna, D. Lane, G . Y. Lip


A comparison of the recording of 30 common childhood conditions in the Doctor\textquoterights Independent Network and General Practice Research Databases

Authors: S. De Wilde, I. Carey, S. Bremner, N. Richards, S. Hilton, D. Strachan, D. Cook


A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort


Authors: C. Crooks, J. West, T. Card


A comparison of the risk of hypoglycemia between users of human and animal insulins. 1. Experience in the United Kingdom

Authors: H. Jick, G. Hall, A. Dean, S. Jick, L. Derby


A comparison of the risks of venous thromboembolic disease in association with different combined oral contraceptives

Authors: R. Farmer, R. Lawrenson, J. Todd, T. Williams, K. MacRae, F. Tyrer, G. Leydon


A comparison of trends in problematic drug misuse from two reporting systems

Authors: M. Frischer, J. Norwood, H. Heatlie, D. Millson, J. Lowdell, M. Hickman, S. Chapman, J. Bashford


A concurrent cohort study of oral contraceptive users from the VAMP research bank


Authors: Yvonne Lis, Walter Spitzer, Ronald Mann, Joy Chukwujindu, Margaret Thorogood, Stephen Evans, Samy Suissa, Jacques Lelorier


A description of clinical characteristics and treatment patterns observed within prescribed opioid users in Germany and the UK


Authors: P. Chevalier, M. Smulders, S. Chavoshi, M. Sostek, R. LoCasale


A drug utilisation study of antidepressants in children and adolescents using the General Practice Research Database


Authors: M. Murray, C. de Vries, I. Wong


A European multicentre drug utilisation study of the impact of regulatory measures on prescribing of codeine for pain in children


Authors: K. Hedenmalm, K. Blake, K. Donegan, M. Macia, M. Gil, J. Williams, D. Montero, G. Candore, D. Morales, X. Kurz, P. Arlett


A follow-up safety study of ciprofloxacin users

Authors: S. Jick, H. Jick, A. Dean


A Harmonised Approach to Curating Research-Ready Datasets for Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in England, Wales and Scotland Using CPRD, SAIL Databank and DataLoch


Authors: S. Hatam, S. Scully, S. Cook, H. Evans, A. Hume, C. Kallis, I. Farr, C. Orton, A. Sheikh, J. Quint


A large population-based follow-up study of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and cephalexin for uncommon serious drug toxicity

Authors: H. Jick, L. Derby


A Long-Term Study of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Oral Corticosteroid Use in COPD


Authors: G. Tse, B. Emmanuel, C. Ariti, M. Bafadhel, A. Papi, V. Carter, J. Zhou, D. Skinner, X. Xu, H. Mullerova, D. Price


A machine learning approach to support triaging of primary versus secondary headache patients using complete blood count


Authors: F. Yang, T. Meng, B. Torben-Nielsen, C. Magnus, C. Liu, E. Dejean


A Matched Cohort Study Evaluating the Risks of Infections in People with Type 1 Diabetes and their Associations with Glycated Haemoglobin


Authors: A. U, I. Carey, J. Critchley, S. DeWilde, E. Limb, L. Bowen, A. Panahloo, D. Cook, P. Whincup, T. Harris


A methodological comparison of two European primary care databases and replication in a US claims database: inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists and the risk of acute myocardial infarction


Authors: A. Afonso, S. Schmiedl, C. Becker, S. Tcherny-Lessenot, P. Primatesta, E. Plana, P. Souverein, Y. Wang, J. Korevaar, J. Hasford, R. Reynolds, M. de Groot, R. Schlienger, O. Klungel, M. Rottenkolber


A Multicenter Observational Study of Incretin-based Drugs and Heart Failure


Authors: K. Filion, L. Azoulay, R. Platt, M. Dahl, C. Dormuth, K. Clemens, N. Hu, J. Paterson, L. Targownik, T. Turin, J. Udell, P. Ernst


A nationwide cohort study of slipped capital femoral epiphysis


Authors: D. Perry, D. Metcalfe, M. Costa, T. Van Staa