Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 April 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF March 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 313 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB April 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

Page last reviewed
Year Sort ascending Title

Eligibility of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for inclusion in randomised control trials investigating triple therapy: a study using routinely collected data


Authors: H. Whittaker, A. Torkpour, J. Quint


Burden of Disease and Treatment Patterns Amongst Patients With Vitiligo: Findings From a National, Longitudinal Retrospective Study in the United Kingdom


Authors: V. Eleftheriadou, C. Delattre, S. Chetty-Mhlanga, C. Lee, L. Girardat-Rotar, I. Khan, A. Mathew, A. Thompson


Risk-stratified monitoring for sulfasalazine toxicity: prognostic model development and validation


Authors: A. Abhishek, M. Grainge, T. Card, H. Williams, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, M. Stevenson, G. Nakafero, R. Riley


Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs Associated With COVID-19 Among Pediatrics Managed in the Community or Hospital Setting in England: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: J. Yang, K. Andersen, K. Rai, T. Tritton, T. Mugwagwa, C. Tsang, M. Reimbaeva, L. McGrath, P. Payne, B. Backhouse, D. Mendes, R. Butfield, R. Wood, J. Nguyen


Risk of fractures in half a million survivors of 20 cancers: a population-based matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records


Authors: E. Buzasi, H. Carreira, G. Funston, K. Mansfield, H. Forbes, H. Strongman, K. Bhaskaran


Risk factor associations for severe COVID-19, influenza and pneumonia in people with diabetes to inform future pandemic preparations: UK population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Hopkins, K. Young, N. Thomas, J. Godwin, D. Raja, B. Mateen, R. Challen, S. Vollmer, B. Shields, A. McGovern, J. Dennis


The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent long COVID symptoms: staggered cohort study of data from the UK, Spain, and Estonia


Authors: M. Català, N. Mercadé-Besora, R. Kolde, N. Trinh, E. Roel, E. Burn, T. Rathod-Mistry, K. Kostka, W . Y. Man, A. Delmestri, H. Nordeng, A. Uusküla, T. Duarte-Salles, D. Prieto-Alhambra, A. Jödicke


Evaluating Ethnic Variations in the Risk of Infections in People With Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: A Matched Cohort Study


Authors: I. Carey, J. Critchley, U. Chaudhry, S. DeWilde, E. Limb, D. Cook, P. Whincup, T. Harris


Comparison of characteristics of patients with lung cancer in U.K. primary care databases: Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum and GOLD


Authors: J. Gulikers, A. van Veelen, J. Driessen, P. Souverein, V. Tjan-Heijnen, L. Hendriks, Rmjm van Geel, S. Croes


Incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a UK population-based matched cohort study


Authors: C. Chalitsios, V. Baskaran, R. Harwood, W. Lim, T. McKeever


Incidence, prevalence, and co-occurrence of autoimmune disorders over time and by age, sex, and socioeconomic status: a population-based cohort study of 22 million individuals in the UK


Authors: N. Conrad, S. Misra, J . Y. Verbakel, G. Verbeke, G. Molenberghs, P. Taylor, J. Mason, N. Sattar, J. McMurray, I. McInnes, K. Khunti, G. Cambridge


Improving 10-year cardiovascular risk prediction in apparently healthy people: flexible addition of risk modifiers on top of SCORE2


Authors: S. Hageman, C. Petitjean, L. Pennells, S. Kaptoge, R. Pajouheshnia, T. Tillmann, M. Blaha, R. McClelland, K. Matsushita, V. Nambi, O. Klungel, P. Souverein, Y. van der Schouw, W. Verschuren, N. Lehmann, R. Erbel, K. Jöckel, E. Di Angelantonio, F. Visseren, J. Dorresteijn


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Adverse infant outcomes following low-risk pregnancies in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


The association between antihypertensive treatment and serious adverse events by age and frailty: A cohort study


Authors: J. Sheppard, C. Koshiaris, R. Stevens, S. Lay-Flurrie, A. Banerjee, B. Bellows, A. Clegg, F. Hobbs, R. Payne, S. Swain, J. Usher-Smith, R. McManus


Short-acting β(2)-agonists and exacerbations in children with asthma in England: SABINA Junior


Authors: A. Morgan, E. Maslova, C. Kallis, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, T. Tran, R. van der Valk, J. Quint


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Long-acting insulin analogues and the risk of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Larose, C. Filliter, R. Platt, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


Developing prediction models to estimate the risk of two survival outcomes both occurring: A comparison of techniques


Authors: A. Pate, M. Sperrin, R. Riley, J. Sergeant, T. Van Staa, N. Peek, M. Mamas, G. Lip, M. O'Flaherty, I. Buchan, G. Martin


SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: S. Aloe, C. Filliter, S. Salmasi, S. Igweokpala, O. H. Y. Yu, V. Tagalakis, K. Filion


Polypharmacy and antidepressant acceptability in comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study using UK primary care data


Authors: A. Jeffery, C. Bhanu, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, J. Hayes


Fertility Trends and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Female Patients With Psoriasis in the UK


Authors: T. Chen, I. Iskandar, R. Parisi, M. Pierce, C. Tower, C. Kleyn, C. Griffiths, D. Ashcroft


Independent Associations of Incident Epilepsy and Enzyme-Inducing and Non-Enzyme-Inducing Antiseizure Medications With the Development of Osteoporosis


Authors: C. Josephson, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, S. Denaxas, T. Sajobi, K. Klein, S. Wiebe


Inequalities in cancer screening participation between adults with and without severe mental illness: results from a cross-sectional analysis of primary care data on English Screening Programmes


Authors: R. Kerrison, A. Jones, J. Peng, G. Price, J. Verne, E. Barley, C. Lugton


Severe COVID-19 outcomes by cardiovascular risk profile in England in 2020: a population-based cohort study


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, J. Davidson, H. Strongman, E. Herrett, L. Smeeth, J. Breuer, A. Banerjee


Healthcare resource utilisation and cost of pneumococcal disease from 2003 to 2019 in children ≤17 years in England


Authors: S. Mohanty, B. Podmore, Cuñado Moral, I. Matthews, E. Sarpong, A. Azpeitia, N. Qizilbash


Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: an observational study

Authors: Julie Ashworth, Ram Bajpai, Sara Muller, James Bailey, Toby Helliwell, Sarah Harrisson, Rebecca Whittle, Christian Mallen


Life expectancy following a cardiovascular event in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes: A UK multi-ethnic population-based observational study


Authors: Y. Chudasama, K. Khunti, B. Coles, C. Gillies, N. Islam, A. Rowlands, S. Seidu, C. Razieh, M. Davies, N. Samani, T. Yates, F. Zaccardi


Consultation Rate and Mode by Deprivation in English General Practice From 2018 to 2022: Population-Based Study


Authors: E. Vestesson, K. De Corte, E. Crellin, J. Ledger, M. Bakhai, G. Clarke


Real-world characterisation of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with and without surgery in England


Authors: V. Benson, Q. Fu, S. Yang, A. Sousa, R. Chan, P. Howarth, C. Hopkins


An algorithm-based approach to ascertain patients with rare diseases in electronic health records using hypereosinophilic syndrome as an example


Authors: G. Requena, S. Joksaite, N. Galwey, R. Jakes


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals to musculoskeletal services from primary care and subsequent incidence of inflammatory rheumatic musculoskeletal disease: an observational study


Authors: C. Burton, R. Bajpai, K. Mason, J. Bailey, K. Jordan, C. Mallen, V. Welsh


Preconception management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid status in subsequent pregnancy: a population-based cohort study


Authors: C. Minassian, L. Allen, O. Okosieme, B. Vaidya, P. Taylor


All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: A. Raslan, J. Quint, S. Cook


Body mass index and survival in people with heart failure


Authors: N. Jones, J. Ordonez-Mena, A. Roalfe, K. Taylor, C. Goyder, F. Hobbs, C. Taylor


Temporal trends in eating disorder and self-harm incidence rates among adolescents and young adults in the UK in the 2 years since onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study


Authors: A. Trafford, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, C. Chew-Graham, E. Cockcroft, L. Cybulski, E. Garavini, S. Garg, T. Kabir, N. Kapur, R. Temple, R. Webb, P. Mok


Identifying subtypes of heart failure from three electronic health record sources with machine learning: an external, prognostic, and genetic validation study


Authors: A. Banerjee, A. Dashtban, S. Chen, L. Pasea, J. Thygesen, G. Fatemifar, B. Tyl, T. Dyszynski, F. Asselbergs, L. Lund, T. Lumbers, S. Denaxas, H. Hemingway


Investigating association between inflammatory bowel disease and rotavirus vaccination in a paediatric cohort in the UK


Authors: A. Flatt, T. Inns, K. Fleming, M. Iturriza-Gomara, D. Hungerford


Trends in musculoskeletal consultations and prescribing: an electronic primary care records study


Authors: Victoria Welsh, Kayleigh Mason, James Bailey, Ram Bajpai, Kelvin Jordan, Christian Mallen, Claire Burton


Risk stratified monitoring for methotrexate toxicity in immune mediated inflammatory diseases: prognostic model development and validation using primary care data from the UK


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, H. Williams, T. Card, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, D. van der Windt, M. Stevenson, R. Riley, A. Abhishek


Contextualising adverse events of special interest to characterise the baseline incidence rates in 24 million patients with COVID-19 across 26 databases: a multinational retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Voss, A. Shoaibi, Yin Lai, C. Blacketer, T. Alshammari, R. Makadia, K. Haynes, A. Sena, G. Rao, S. van Sandijk, C. Fraboulet, L. Boyer, T. Le Carrour, S. Horban, D. Morales, Martínez Roldán, J. Ramirez-Anguita, M. Mayer, M. de Wilde, L. John, T. Duarte-Salles, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, R. Kolde, F. Maljković, S. Denaxas, V. Papez, M. Kahn, K. Natarajan, C. Reich, A. Secora, E. Minty, N. Shah, J. Posada, M. Morales, D. Bosca, Cadenas Juanino, Diaz Holgado, Pedrera Jiménez, Serrano Balazote, García Barrio, S. Şen, A . Y. Üresin, B. Erdogan, L. Belmans, G. Byttebier, Mlng Malbrain, D. Dedman, Z. Cuccu, R. Vashisht, A. Butte, A. Patel, L. Dahm, C. Han, F. Bu, F. Arshad, A. Ostropolets, F. Nyberg, G. Hripcsak, M. Suchard, D. Prieto-Alhambra, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, P. Ryan


Comparative Effectiveness of Umeclidinium/Vilanterol versus Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Primary Care Setting in England


Authors: A. Czira, G. Requena, V. Banks, R. Wood, T. Tritton, C. Castillo, J. Yeap, R. Wild, C. Compton, K. Rothnie, F. Herth, J. Quint, A. Ismaila


Predicting the risk of acute kidney injury in primary care: derivation and validation of STRATIFY-AKI


Authors: C. Koshiaris, L. Archer, S. Lay-Flurrie, K. Snell, R. Riley, R. Stevens, A. Banerjee, J. Usher-Smith, A. Clegg, R. Payne, M. Ogden, F. Hobbs, R. McManus, J. Sheppard


Use of metformin and insulin among pregnant women with gestation diabetes in the United Kingdom: A population-based cohort study


Authors: Y. Yu, R. Platt, P. Reynier, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


Evaluating the Performance of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores Compared with Standard Propensity Scores for Comparing Antihypertensive Therapies in the CPRD GOLD Database


Authors: V. Simon, J. Vadel


Valsartan, Losartan and Irbesartan use in the USA, UK, Canada and Denmark after the nitrosamine recalls: a descriptive cohort study


Authors: E. Eworuke, M. Shinde, L. Hou, M. Paterson, P. Jensen, J. Maro, A. Rai, D. Scarnecchia, D. Pennap, D. Woronow, R. Ghosh, S. Welburn, A. Pottegard, R. Platt, H. Lee, M. Bradley


Mortality in children with epilepsy: Cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Schnier, R. Chin


The prevalent new-user design for studies with no active comparator: The example of statins and cancer


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Renoux


Multiple morbidity across the lifespan in people with Down syndrome or intellectual disabilities: a population-based cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Baksh, S. Pape, L. Chan, A. Aslam, M. Gulliford, A. Strydom