Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 May 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF May 2024 (PDF, 3.7MB, 317 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB May 2024 (BIB, 1.8MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent long COVID symptoms: staggered cohort study of data from the UK, Spain, and Estonia


Authors: M. Català, N. Mercadé-Besora, R. Kolde, N. Trinh, E. Roel, E. Burn, T. Rathod-Mistry, K. Kostka, W . Y. Man, A. Delmestri, H. Nordeng, A. Uusküla, T. Duarte-Salles, D. Prieto-Alhambra, A. Jödicke


Treatment pathways, economic burden and clinical outcomes in new users of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting B(2)-agonist dual therapy with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a primary care setting in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: A. Czira, V. Banks, G. Requena, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Wild, C. Compton, A. Ismaila


Smoking is a Risk Factor for Autoimmune Hepatitis: An English Registry-Based Case-Control Study


Authors: L. Grønbæk, H. Omeife, L. Ban, C. Crooks, T. Card, P. Jepsen, J. West


Uptake and safety of pneumococcal vaccination in adults with immune mediated inflammatory diseases: a UK wide observational study


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, J. Van-Tam, A. Abhishek


Oral prednisolone and warfarin and risk of oesophageal cancer: A case-control study


Authors: C. Cardwell, R. McDowell, C. Hughes, J. Busby, P. Murchie


Implementation and external validation of the Cambridge Multimorbidity Score in the UK Biobank cohort


Authors: H. Harrison, S. Ip, C. Renzi, Y. Li, M. Barclay, J. Usher-Smith, G. Lyratzopoulos, A. Wood, A. Antoniou


Association between patient ethnicity and prostate cancer diagnosis following a prostate-specific antigen test: a cohort study of 730,000 men in primary care in the UK


Authors: L. Down, M. Barlow, S. Bailey, L. Mounce, S. Merriel, J. Watson, T. Martins


Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the risk of lung cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes


Authors: S. Shapiro, H. Yin, O. H. Y. Yu, L. Azoulay


How common are side effects of treatment to prevent gout flares when starting allopurinol?


Authors: H. Saul, B. Deeney, L. Swaithes, E. Roddy


Clostridioides difficile infections, recurrences, and clinical outcomes in real-world settings from 2015 to 2019: The RECUR England study


Authors: S. Ghosh, A. Antunes, H. Rinta-Kokko, E. Chaparova, S. Lay-Flurrie, A. Tricotel, F. Andersson


Eligibility of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for inclusion in randomised control trials investigating triple therapy: a study using routinely collected data


Authors: H. Whittaker, A. Torkpour, J. Quint


Burden of Disease and Treatment Patterns Amongst Patients With Vitiligo: Findings From a National, Longitudinal Retrospective Study in the United Kingdom


Authors: V. Eleftheriadou, C. Delattre, S. Chetty-Mhlanga, C. Lee, L. Girardat-Rotar, I. Khan, A. Mathew, A. Thompson


5-year mental health outcomes for children and adolescents presenting with psychiatric symptoms to general practitioners in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Senior, M. Pierce, V. Taxiarchi, S. Garg, D. Edge, T. Newlove-Delgado, S. Neufeld, K. Abel


Risk-stratified monitoring for sulfasalazine toxicity: prognostic model development and validation


Authors: A. Abhishek, M. Grainge, T. Card, H. Williams, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, M. Stevenson, G. Nakafero, R. Riley


Effect of combination treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on incidence of cardiovascular and serious renal events: population based cohort study


Authors: N. Simms-Williams, N. Treves, H. Yin, S. Lu, O. Yu, R. Pradhan, C. Renoux, S. Suissa, L. Azoulay


Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs Associated With COVID-19 Among Pediatrics Managed in the Community or Hospital Setting in England: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: J. Yang, K. Andersen, K. Rai, T. Tritton, T. Mugwagwa, C. Tsang, M. Reimbaeva, L. McGrath, P. Payne, B. Backhouse, D. Mendes, R. Butfield, R. Wood, J. Nguyen


The long-term impact of vaginal surgical mesh devices on pain clinic and psychological service referrals, anti-inflammatory testing and pelvic scans in UK primary care: A cohort study with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: E. McFadden, C. Heneghan


Incidence, prevalence and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in England from 2008 to 2018: a cohort study


Authors: R. Gupta, A. Morgan, P. George, J. Quint


Risk of fractures in half a million survivors of 20 cancers: a population-based matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records


Authors: E. Buzasi, H. Carreira, G. Funston, K. Mansfield, H. Forbes, H. Strongman, K. Bhaskaran


Risk factor associations for severe COVID-19, influenza and pneumonia in people with diabetes to inform future pandemic preparations: UK population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Hopkins, K. Young, N. Thomas, J. Godwin, D. Raja, B. Mateen, R. Challen, S. Vollmer, B. Shields, A. McGovern, J. Dennis


A Harmonised Approach to Curating Research-Ready Datasets for Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in England, Wales and Scotland Using CPRD, SAIL Databank and DataLoch


Authors: S. Hatam, S. Scully, S. Cook, H. Evans, A. Hume, C. Kallis, I. Farr, C. Orton, A. Sheikh, J. Quint


The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent long COVID symptoms: staggered cohort study of data from the UK, Spain, and Estonia


Authors: M. Català, N. Mercadé-Besora, R. Kolde, N. Trinh, E. Roel, E. Burn, T. Rathod-Mistry, K. Kostka, W . Y. Man, A. Delmestri, H. Nordeng, A. Uusküla, T. Duarte-Salles, D. Prieto-Alhambra, A. Jödicke


Evaluating Ethnic Variations in the Risk of Infections in People With Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: A Matched Cohort Study


Authors: I. Carey, J. Critchley, U. Chaudhry, S. DeWilde, E. Limb, D. Cook, P. Whincup, T. Harris


Comparison of characteristics of patients with lung cancer in U.K. primary care databases: Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum and GOLD


Authors: J. Gulikers, A. van Veelen, J. Driessen, P. Souverein, V. Tjan-Heijnen, L. Hendriks, Rmjm van Geel, S. Croes


Incidence, prevalence, and co-occurrence of autoimmune disorders over time and by age, sex, and socioeconomic status: a population-based cohort study of 22 million individuals in the UK


Authors: N. Conrad, S. Misra, J . Y. Verbakel, G. Verbeke, G. Molenberghs, P. Taylor, J. Mason, N. Sattar, J. McMurray, I. McInnes, K. Khunti, G. Cambridge


Improving 10-year cardiovascular risk prediction in apparently healthy people: flexible addition of risk modifiers on top of SCORE2


Authors: S. Hageman, C. Petitjean, L. Pennells, S. Kaptoge, R. Pajouheshnia, T. Tillmann, M. Blaha, R. McClelland, K. Matsushita, V. Nambi, O. Klungel, P. Souverein, Y. van der Schouw, W. Verschuren, N. Lehmann, R. Erbel, K. Jöckel, E. Di Angelantonio, F. Visseren, J. Dorresteijn


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Long-acting insulin analogues and the risk of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Larose, C. Filliter, R. Platt, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


Developing prediction models to estimate the risk of two survival outcomes both occurring: A comparison of techniques


Authors: A. Pate, M. Sperrin, R. Riley, J. Sergeant, T. Van Staa, N. Peek, M. Mamas, G. Lip, M. O'Flaherty, I. Buchan, G. Martin


SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: S. Aloe, C. Filliter, S. Salmasi, S. Igweokpala, O. H. Y. Yu, V. Tagalakis, K. Filion


Fertility Trends and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Female Patients With Psoriasis in the UK


Authors: T. Chen, I. Iskandar, R. Parisi, M. Pierce, C. Tower, C. Kleyn, C. Griffiths, D. Ashcroft


Independent Associations of Incident Epilepsy and Enzyme-Inducing and Non-Enzyme-Inducing Antiseizure Medications With the Development of Osteoporosis


Authors: C. Josephson, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, S. Denaxas, T. Sajobi, K. Klein, S. Wiebe


Inequalities in cancer screening participation between adults with and without severe mental illness: results from a cross-sectional analysis of primary care data on English Screening Programmes


Authors: R. Kerrison, A. Jones, J. Peng, G. Price, J. Verne, E. Barley, C. Lugton


Life expectancy following a cardiovascular event in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes: A UK multi-ethnic population-based observational study


Authors: Y. Chudasama, K. Khunti, B. Coles, C. Gillies, N. Islam, A. Rowlands, S. Seidu, C. Razieh, M. Davies, N. Samani, T. Yates, F. Zaccardi


Consultation Rate and Mode by Deprivation in English General Practice From 2018 to 2022: Population-Based Study


Authors: E. Vestesson, K. De Corte, E. Crellin, J. Ledger, M. Bakhai, G. Clarke


Real-world characterisation of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with and without surgery in England


Authors: V. Benson, Q. Fu, S. Yang, A. Sousa, R. Chan, P. Howarth, C. Hopkins


An algorithm-based approach to ascertain patients with rare diseases in electronic health records using hypereosinophilic syndrome as an example


Authors: G. Requena, S. Joksaite, N. Galwey, R. Jakes


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals to musculoskeletal services from primary care and subsequent incidence of inflammatory rheumatic musculoskeletal disease: an observational study


Authors: C. Burton, R. Bajpai, K. Mason, J. Bailey, K. Jordan, C. Mallen, V. Welsh


Preconception management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid status in subsequent pregnancy: a population-based cohort study


Authors: C. Minassian, L. Allen, O. Okosieme, B. Vaidya, P. Taylor


All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: A. Raslan, J. Quint, S. Cook


Body mass index and survival in people with heart failure


Authors: N. Jones, J. Ordonez-Mena, A. Roalfe, K. Taylor, C. Goyder, F. Hobbs, C. Taylor


Temporal trends in eating disorder and self-harm incidence rates among adolescents and young adults in the UK in the 2 years since onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study


Authors: A. Trafford, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, C. Chew-Graham, E. Cockcroft, L. Cybulski, E. Garavini, S. Garg, T. Kabir, N. Kapur, R. Temple, R. Webb, P. Mok


Identifying subtypes of heart failure from three electronic health record sources with machine learning: an external, prognostic, and genetic validation study


Authors: A. Banerjee, A. Dashtban, S. Chen, L. Pasea, J. Thygesen, G. Fatemifar, B. Tyl, T. Dyszynski, F. Asselbergs, L. Lund, T. Lumbers, S. Denaxas, H. Hemingway


Trends in musculoskeletal consultations and prescribing: an electronic primary care records study


Authors: Victoria Welsh, Kayleigh Mason, James Bailey, Ram Bajpai, Kelvin Jordan, Christian Mallen, Claire Burton


Risk stratified monitoring for methotrexate toxicity in immune mediated inflammatory diseases: prognostic model development and validation using primary care data from the UK


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, H. Williams, T. Card, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, D. van der Windt, M. Stevenson, R. Riley, A. Abhishek


Evaluating the Performance of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores Compared with Standard Propensity Scores for Comparing Antihypertensive Therapies in the CPRD GOLD Database


Authors: V. Simon, J. Vadel


Valsartan, Losartan and Irbesartan use in the USA, UK, Canada and Denmark after the nitrosamine recalls: a descriptive cohort study


Authors: E. Eworuke, M. Shinde, L. Hou, M. Paterson, P. Jensen, J. Maro, A. Rai, D. Scarnecchia, D. Pennap, D. Woronow, R. Ghosh, S. Welburn, A. Pottegard, R. Platt, H. Lee, M. Bradley


Mortality in children with epilepsy: Cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Schnier, R. Chin


The prevalent new-user design for studies with no active comparator: The example of statins and cancer


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Renoux