Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2833 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Full Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone: A Retrospective Cohort study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
B. Zheng, Su, B., Price, G., Tzoulaki, I., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., and Middleton, L., Glycemic Control, Diabetic Complications, and Risk of Dementia in Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Large U.K. Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
S. Price, Abel, G. A., and Hamilton, W., Guideline interval: A new time interval in the diagnostic pathway for symptomatic cancer, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 73, p. 101969, 2021.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E., Aldridge, J., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a comparative cohort study, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Boiko, O., Winter, J. R., Rezel-Potts, E., Sun, X., Burgess, C., McDermott, L., Bunce, C., Shearer, J., Curcin, V., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Safety of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Gulliford et al. This work was produced by Gulliford et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed und, 2021.
J. Lister, Han, L., Bellass, S., Taylor, J., Alderson, S. L., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Holt, R. I. G., Jacobs, R., Kitchen, C. E. W., Prady, S. L., Radford, J., Ride, J. R., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., and Siddiqi, N., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Identifying determinants of diabetes risk and outcomes for people with severe mental illness: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Lister et al. This work was produced by Lister et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed under the, 2021.
A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
S. L. Lay-Flurrie, Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R. J., Mallen, C., Heneghan, C., Hobbs, F. R., Williams, B., Mant, J., and McManus, R. J., Impact of changes to national guidelines on hypertension-related workload: an interrupted time series analysis in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e296-e302, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
A. Douros, Santella, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Azoulay, L., Renoux, C., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Infectious Disease Burden and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Yu, O. H. Y., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., Initiation of four basal insulins and subsequent treatment modification in people treated for type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom: Changes over the period 2003-2018, Diabet Med, p. e14603, 2021.
D. R. Morales, Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., and Wang, H., Intolerance to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Asthma and the General Population: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
M. Ardissino, Vincent, M., Hines, O., Amin, R., Eichhorn, C., Tang, A. R., Collins, P., Moussa, O., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy in patients with obesity: a nationwide, propensity-score matched cohort study, Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Edwards, J., Heaton, T., Khan, O., Tsang, K., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol. 203, p. 106560, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Muttoni, S., Faraj, A., Tang, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., Jaffer, U., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021.
J. Tran, Norton, R., Canoy, D., Solares, J. R. Ayala, Conrad, N., Nazarzadeh, M., Raimondi, F., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Rodgers, A., and Rahimi, K., Multi-morbidity and blood pressure trajectories in hypertensive patients: A multiple landmark cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003674, 2021.
C. J. Taylor, Lay-Flurrie, S. L., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Goyder, C. R., Jones, N. R., Roalfe, A. K., and Hobbs, F. R., Natriuretic peptide level at heart failure diagnosis and risk of hospitalisation and death in England 2004-2018, Heart, 2021.
K. Richardson, Savva, G. M., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Maidment, I., Pakpahan, E., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Steel, N., Ballard, C., Howard, R., and Fox, C., Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic use for sleep disturbance in people aged over 55 years living with dementia: a series of cohort studies, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-202, 2021.
S. Lopes, Meincke, H. H., Lamotte, M., Olivieri, A. V., and Lean, M. E. J., A novel decision model to predict the impact of weight management interventions: The Core Obesity Model, Obes Sci Pract, vol. 7, pp. 269-280, 2021.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O., McIntyre, C., Hariri, A., Tolley, N., Kotecha, B., and Purkayastha, S., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, Obes Surg, 2021.
E. J. Peach, Pearce, F. A., Gibson, J., Cooper, A. J., Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
C. A. Lawson, Seidu, S., Zaccardi, F., McCann, G., Kadam, U. T., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Heerspink, H. L., and Khunti, K., Outcome trends in people with heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the UK over twenty years, EClinicalMedicine, 2021.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., Otete, H., Crooks, C. J., West, J., and Humes, D. J., Outcomes after non-operative management of perforated diverticular disease: a population-based cohort study, BJS Open, vol. 5, 2021.
T. Inns, Fleming, K. M., Iturriza-Gomara, M., and Hungerford, D., Paediatric rotavirus vaccination, coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes in children: a population-based cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 147, 2021.
L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
M. Noble, Burden, A., Stirling, S., Clark, A., Musgrave, S., M. Sallakh, A., Price, D., Davies, G., Pinnock, H., Pond, M., Sheikh, A., Sims, E., Walker, S., and Wilson, A., Predicting asthma-related crisis events using routine electronic healthcare data, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
D. Groves, Karsanji, U., Evans, R. A., Greening, N., Singh, S. J., Quint, J. K., Whittaker, H., Richardson, M., Barrett, J., Sutch, S. P., and Steiner, M. C., Predicting Future Health Risk in COPD: Differential Impact of Disease-Specific and Multi-Morbidity-Based Risk Stratification, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1741-1754, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
J. F. Hayes, Osborn, D. P. J., Francis, E., Ambler, G., Tomlinson, L. A., Boman, M., Wong, I. C. K., Geddes, J. R., Dalman, C., and Lewis, G., Prediction of individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease during treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 99, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
R. F. M. Chin, Pickrell, W. O., Guelfucci, F., Martin, M., and Holland, R., Prevalence, healthcare resource utilization and mortality of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: retrospective linkage cohort study, Seizure, vol. 91, pp. 159-166, 2021.
V. Baskaran, Pearce, F., Harwood, R. H., McKeever, T. M., and Lim, W. S., Primary care consultations after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a large population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e250-e257, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
M. J. Schuemie, Weinstein, R., Ryan, P. B., and Berlin, J. A., Quantifying bias in epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between acetaminophen use and cancer, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol. 120, p. 104866, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
E. M. Powell, Douglas, I. J., Gungabissoon, U., Smeeth, L., and Wing, K., Real-world effects of medications for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042947, 2021.
S. W. D. Merriel, Ingle, S. M., May, M. T., and Martin, R. M., Retrospective cohort study evaluating clinical, biochemical and pharmacological prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e044420, 2021.
S. Ahmad, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., Cook, D. G., DeWilde, S., and Strachan, D. P., The rising tide of dementia deaths: triangulation of data from three routine data sources using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Geriatr, vol. 21, p. 375, 2021.
A. Subota, Jetté, N., Josephson, C. B., McMillan, J., Keezer, M. R., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., and Holroyd-Leduc, J., Risk factors for dementia development, frailty, and mortality in older adults with epilepsy - A population-based analysis, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 120, p. 108006, 2021.
L. van der Sande, Jöbsis, Q., Bannier, M., van de Garde, E. M. W., Coremans, J. J. M., de Vries, F., Dompeling, E., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia in children using gastric acid suppressants, Eur Respir J, 2021.
K. J. Smith, Peterson, M. D., Victor, C., and Ryan, J. M., Risk of dementia in adults with cerebral palsy: a matched cohort study using general practice data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042652, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]