Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 May 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 203 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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C. L. Burton, Chesterton, L. S., Chen, Y., and van der Windt, D. A., Predicting surgical intervention in patients presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome in primary care, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 739-748, 2018.
F. Rahimian, Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Payberah, A. H., Tran, J., R. Solares, A., Raimondi, F., Nazarzadeh, M., Canoy, D., and Rahimi, K., Predicting the risk of emergency admission with machine learning: Development and validation using linked electronic health records, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002695, 2018.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Predictors and temporal trend of flu vaccination in auto-immune rheumatic diseases in the UK: a nationwide prospective cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 1726-1734, 2018.
T. Newlove-Delgado, Ford, T. J., Hamilton, W., Stein, K., and Ukoumunne, O. C., Prescribing of medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among young people in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2005-2013: analysis of time to cessation, Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, vol. 27, pp. 29-35, 2018.
D. Spanopoulos, Barrett, B., Busse, M., Roman, T., and Poole, C., Prescription of DPP-4 Inhibitors to Patients With Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Creatinine Clearance>50 mL/min: The UK Primary Care Experience, Clin Ther, vol. 40, pp. 1424-1428.e4, 2018.
D. Spanopoulos, Barrett, B., Busse, M., Roman, T., and Poole, C., Prescription of DPP-4 Inhibitors to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients With Renal Impairment: A UK Primary Care Experience, Clin Ther, vol. 40, pp. 152-154, 2018.
S. H. Mahmoudpour, Asselbergs, F. W., Souverein, P. C., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Prescription patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for various indications: A UK population-based study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 2365-2372, 2018.
M. D. Danese, Sidelnikov, E., and Kutikova, L., The prevalence, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and treatment of patients at very high risk of cardiovascular events in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional study, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 34, pp. 1441-1447, 2018.
G. Disanto, Zecca, C., MacLachlan, S., Sacco, R., Handunnetthi, L., Meier, U. C., Simpson, A., McDonald, L., Rossi, A., Benkert, P., Kuhle, J., Ramagopalan, S. V., and Gobbi, C., Prodromal symptoms of multiple sclerosis in primary care, Ann Neurol, vol. 83, pp. 1162-1173, 2018.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Developing Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia: A Case-Control Analysis, Drug Saf, vol. 41, pp. 1387-1396, 2018.
V. S. Hegade, Mells, G. F., Fisher, H., Kendrick, S., DiBello, J., Gilchrist, K., Alexander, G. J., Hirschfield, G. M., Sandford, R. N., and Jones, D. E. J., Pruritus is Common and Under-treated in Patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis in the United Kingdom, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2018.
R. Houghton, Liu, C., and Bolognani, F., Psychiatric Comorbidities and Psychotropic Medication Use in Autism: A Matched Cohort Study with ADHD and General Population Comparator Groups in the United Kingdom, Autism Res, 2018.
R. Parisi, Webb, R. T., Kleyn, C. E., Carr, M. J., Kapur, N., Griffiths, C. E. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal behaviour in psoriasis: a primary care cohort study, Br J Dermatol, 2018.
S. A. Schmidt, Vestergaard, M., Pedersen, H. S., Schonheyder, H. C., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Mansfield, K. E., Sorensen, H. T., Forbes, H. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner Bereavement and Risk of Herpes Zoster: Results from Two Population-Based Case-Control Studies in Denmark and the United Kingdom, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 64, pp. 572-579, 2017.
S. Stevens, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T. A., Salisbury, C., and Hobbs, F. D. R., Patient-level and practice-level factors associated with consultation duration: a cross-sectional analysis of over one million consultations in English primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e018261, 2017.
H. J. I. De Jong, van Staa, T. P., Lalmohamed, A., de Vries, F., Vandebriel, R. J., Van Loveren, H., Klungel, O. H., and Tervaert, J. W. Cohen, Pattern of risks of systemic lupus erythematosus among statin users: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 76, pp. 1723-1730, 2017.
T. P. C. Chu, Moran, G. W., and Card, T. R., The Pattern of Underlying Cause of Death in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in England: A Record Linkage Study, J Crohns Colitis, vol. 11, pp. 578-585, 2017.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., Beynon, J., and Donegan, K., Patterns of anti-diabetic medication use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in England and Wales, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 127-135, 2017.
C. R. Chapple, Nazir, J., Hakimi, Z., Bowditch, S., Fatoye, F., Guelfucci, F., Khemiri, A., Siddiqui, E., and Wagg, A., Persistence and Adherence with Mirabegron versus Antimuscarinic Agents in Patients with Overactive Bladder: A Retrospective Observational Study in UK Clinical Practice, Eur Urol, vol. 72, pp. 389-399, 2017.
A. Douros, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Pharmacologic Differences of Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Hypoglycemic Events, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1506-1513, 2017.
A. Farley, Koshiaris, C., Oke, J., Ryan, R., Szatkowski, L., Stevens, R., and Aveyard, P., Physician Support of Smoking Cessation After Diagnosis of Lung, Bladder, or Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 443-450, 2017.
H. Strongman, Korhonen, P., Williams, R., Bahmanyar, S., Hoti, F., Christopher, S., Majak, M., Kool-Houweling, L., Linder, M., Dolin, P., and Heintjes, E. M., Pioglitazone and risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a European multidatabase cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 5, p. e000364, 2017.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Edwards, E., Lee, H., Chaturvedi, N., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e014444, 2017.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Bedson, J., Englund, M., Blyth, F., Turkiewicz, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Peat, G., Population trends in the incidence and initial management of osteoarthritis: age-period-cohort analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1992-2013, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 1902-1917, 2017.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, D., Stohler, N. A., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Population-Based Study on the Epidemiology of Meniere's Disease, Audiol Neurootol, vol. 22, pp. 74-82, 2017.
L. V. Re, Carbonari, D. M., Saine, M. E., Newcomb, C. W., Roy, J. A., Liu, Q., Wu, Q., Cardillo, S., Haynes, K., Kimmel, S. E., Reese, P. P., Margolis, D. J., Apter, A. J., Reddy, K. R., Hennessy, S., Bhullar, H., Gallagher, A. M., Esposito, D. B., and Strom, B. L., Postauthorization safety study of the DPP-4 inhibitor saxagliptin: a large-scale multinational family of cohort studies of five outcomes, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 5, p. e000400, 2017.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Premature Death Among Primary Care Patients With a History of Self-Harm, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 246-254, 2017.
A. L. Nightingale, Davidson, J. E., Molta, C. T., Kan, H. J., and McHugh, N. J., Presentation of SLE in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Lupus Sci Med, vol. 4, p. e000172, 2017.
A. J. M. Cooper, Willis, J., Fuller, J., Benecke, H., Leighton-Scott, J., Andersohn, F., Kim, J., Maier, C., and Knaggs, R. D., Prevalence and Incidence Trends for Diagnosed Prescription Opioid Use Disorders in the United Kingdom, Pain Ther, vol. 6, pp. 73-84, 2017.
B. Mars, Heron, J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., Thomas, K. H., and Kessler, D., Prevalence and patterns of antidepressant switching amongst primary care patients in the UK, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 31, pp. 553-560, 2017.
S. E. Holden, Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Peters, J. R., Schernthaner, G., and Currie, C. J., Prevalence, glucose control and relative survival of people with Type 2 diabetes in the UK from 1991 to 2013, Diabet Med, vol. 34, pp. 770-780, 2017.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., McDonald, H. I., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 792-801, 2017.
S. Jick, Li, L., Gastanaga, V. M., Liede, A., and Hernandez, R. K., Prevalence of hypercalcemia of malignancy among pediatric cancer patients in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 339-343, 2017.
S. Suissa, Moodie, E. E., and Dell'Aniello, S., Prevalent new-user cohort designs for comparative drug effect studies by time-conditional propensity scores, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 459-468, 2017.
N. Arden, Altman, D., Beard, D., Carr, A., Clarke, N., Collins, G., Cooper, C., Culliford, D., Delmestri, A., Garden, S., Griffin, T., Javaid, K., Judge, A., Latham, J., Mullee, M., Murray, D., Ogundimu, E., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Price, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Raftery, J., Programme Grants for Applied Research, in Lower limb arthroplasty: can we produce a tool to predict outcome and failure, and is it cost-effective? An epidemiological study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright (c) Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2017. This work was produced by Arden et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the pu, 2017.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Yin, H., Abenhaim, H. A., Fort, G. G. du, and Azoulay, L., Prolactin-Elevating Antipsychotics and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 78, pp. 714-719, 2017.
G. J. Young, Harrison, S., Turner, E. L., Walsh, E. I., Oliver, S. E., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Evans, S., Lane, J. A., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., Donovan, J. L., Martin, R. M., and Metcalfe, C., Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017729, 2017.
A. Judge, Garriga, C., Arden, N. K., Lovestone, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., and Edwards, C. J., Protective effect of antirheumatic drugs on dementia in rheumatoid arthritis patients, Alzheimers Dement (N Y), vol. 3, pp. 612-621, 2017.
G. Bouras, Markar, S. R., Burns, E. M., Huddy, J. R., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., Darzi, A., and Hanna, G. B., The psychological impact of symptoms related to esophagogastric cancer resection presenting in primary care: A national linked database study, Eur J Surg Oncol, vol. 43, pp. 454-460, 2017.
A. Lane, Metcalfe, C., Young, G. J., Peters, T. J., Blazeby, J., Avery, K. N., Dedman, D., Down, L., Mason, M. D., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., and Donovan, J. L., Patient-reported outcomes in the ProtecT randomized trial of clinically localized prostate cancer treatments: study design, and baseline urinary, bowel and sexual function and quality of life, BJU Int, vol. 118, pp. 869-879, 2016.
A. W. Lim, Hamilton, W., Hollingworth, A., Stapley, S., and Sasieni, P., Performance characteristics of visualising the cervix in symptomatic young females: a review of primary care records in females with and without cervical cancer, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e189-92, 2016.
R. Tamblyn, Girard, N., Dixon, W. G., Haas, J., Bates, D. W., Sheppard, T., Eguale, T., Buckeridge, D., Abrahamowicz, M., and Forster, A., Pharmacosurveillance without borders: electronic health records in different countries can be used to address important methodological issues in estimating the risk of adverse events, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 77, pp. 101-111, 2016.
A. Matthews, Langan, S. M., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS Med, vol. 13, p. e1002037, 2016.
Y. Lian, Yin, H., Pollak, M. N., Carrier, S., Platt, R. W., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and the Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer, Eur Urol, vol. 70, pp. 808-815, 2016.
P. Korhonen, Heintjes, E. M., Williams, R., Hoti, F., Christopher, S., Majak, M., Kool-Houweling, L., Strongman, H., Linder, M., Dolin, P., and Bahmanyar, S., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using datasets from four European countries, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3903, 2016.
M. Tuccori, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 352, p. i1541, 2016.
S. A. Julious, Horspool, M. J., Davis, S., Bradburn, M., Norman, P., Shephard, N., Cooper, C. L., Smithson, W. H., Boote, J., Elphick, H., Loban, A., Franklin, M., Kua, W. S., May, R., Campbell, J., Williams, R., Rex, S., and Bortolami, O., PLEASANT: Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-age children Associated with a New Term - a cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation, Health Technol Assess, vol. 20, pp. 1-154, 2016.
M. Alexander, Ding, Y., Foskett, N., Petri, H., Wandel, C., and Khwaja, O., Population prevalence of Down's syndrome in the United Kingdom, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 60, pp. 874-8, 2016.
J. C. Wilson, Furlano, R. I., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., A population-based study examining the risk of malignancy in patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, J Gastroenterol, vol. 51, pp. 1050-1062, 2016.
D. Price, Wilson, A. M., Chisholm, A., Rigazio, A., Burden, A., Thomas, M., and King, C., Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 9, pp. 1-12, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 5 May 2020]