Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,300 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 September 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 189 pages)


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A. Douros, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Pharmacologic Differences of Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Hypoglycemic Events, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1506-1513, 2017.
A. Farley, Koshiaris, C., Oke, J., Ryan, R., Szatkowski, L., Stevens, R., and Aveyard, P., Physician Support of Smoking Cessation After Diagnosis of Lung, Bladder, or Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 443-450, 2017.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Edwards, E., Lee, H., Chaturvedi, N., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004-2014, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e014444, 2017.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Bedson, J., Englund, M., Blyth, F., Turkiewicz, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Peat, G., Population trends in the incidence and initial management of osteoarthritis: age-period-cohort analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1992-2013, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 1902-1917, 2017.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, D., Stohler, N. A., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Population-Based Study on the Epidemiology of Meniere's Disease, Audiol Neurootol, vol. 22, pp. 74-82, 2017.
L. V. Re, Carbonari, D. M., Saine, M. E., Newcomb, C. W., Roy, J. A., Liu, Q., Wu, Q., Cardillo, S., Haynes, K., Kimmel, S. E., Reese, P. P., Margolis, D. J., Apter, A. J., Reddy, K. R., Hennessy, S., Bhullar, H., Gallagher, A. M., Esposito, D. B., and Strom, B. L., Postauthorization safety study of the DPP-4 inhibitor saxagliptin: a large-scale multinational family of cohort studies of five outcomes, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 5, p. e000400, 2017.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Premature Death Among Primary Care Patients With a History of Self-Harm, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 246-254, 2017.
A. L. Nightingale, Davidson, J. E., Molta, C. T., Kan, H. J., and McHugh, N. J., Presentation of SLE in UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Lupus Sci Med, vol. 4, p. e000172, 2017.
A. J. M. Cooper, Willis, J., Fuller, J., Benecke, H., Leighton-Scott, J., Andersohn, F., Kim, J., Maier, C., and Knaggs, R. D., Prevalence and Incidence Trends for Diagnosed Prescription Opioid Use Disorders in the United Kingdom, Pain Ther, vol. 6, pp. 73-84, 2017.
B. Mars, Heron, J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., Thomas, K. H., and Kessler, D., Prevalence and patterns of antidepressant switching amongst primary care patients in the UK, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 31, pp. 553-560, 2017.
S. E. Holden, Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Peters, J. R., Schernthaner, G., and Currie, C. J., Prevalence, glucose control and relative survival of people with Type 2 diabetes in the UK from 1991 to 2013, Diabet Med, vol. 34, pp. 770-780, 2017.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., McDonald, H. I., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 792-801, 2017.
S. Jick, Li, L., Gastanaga, V. M., Liede, A., and Hernandez, R. K., Prevalence of hypercalcemia of malignancy among pediatric cancer patients in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 339-343, 2017.
S. Suissa, Moodie, E. E., and Dell'Aniello, S., Prevalent new-user cohort designs for comparative drug effect studies by time-conditional propensity scores, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 459-468, 2017.
N. Arden, Altman, D., Beard, D., Carr, A., Clarke, N., Collins, G., Cooper, C., Culliford, D., Delmestri, A., Garden, S., Griffin, T., Javaid, K., Judge, A., Latham, J., Mullee, M., Murray, D., Ogundimu, E., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Price, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Raftery, J., Programme Grants for Applied Research, in Lower limb arthroplasty: can we produce a tool to predict outcome and failure, and is it cost-effective? An epidemiological study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright (c) Queen's Printer and Controller of HMSO 2017. This work was produced by Arden et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health. This issue may be freely reproduced for the pu, 2017.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Yin, H., Abenhaim, H. A., Fort, G. G. du, and Azoulay, L., Prolactin-Elevating Antipsychotics and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 78, pp. 714-719, 2017.
G. J. Young, Harrison, S., Turner, E. L., Walsh, E. I., Oliver, S. E., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Evans, S., Lane, J. A., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., Donovan, J. L., Martin, R. M., and Metcalfe, C., Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017729, 2017.
A. Judge, Garriga, C., Arden, N. K., Lovestone, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., and Edwards, C. J., Protective effect of antirheumatic drugs on dementia in rheumatoid arthritis patients, Alzheimers Dement (N Y), vol. 3, pp. 612-621, 2017.
G. Bouras, Markar, S. R., Burns, E. M., Huddy, J. R., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., Darzi, A., and Hanna, G. B., The psychological impact of symptoms related to esophagogastric cancer resection presenting in primary care: A national linked database study, Eur J Surg Oncol, vol. 43, pp. 454-460, 2017.
A. Lane, Metcalfe, C., Young, G. J., Peters, T. J., Blazeby, J., Avery, K. N., Dedman, D., Down, L., Mason, M. D., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., and Donovan, J. L., Patient-reported outcomes in the ProtecT randomized trial of clinically localized prostate cancer treatments: study design, and baseline urinary, bowel and sexual function and quality of life, BJU Int, vol. 118, pp. 869-879, 2016.
A. W. Lim, Hamilton, W., Hollingworth, A., Stapley, S., and Sasieni, P., Performance characteristics of visualising the cervix in symptomatic young females: a review of primary care records in females with and without cervical cancer, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e189-92, 2016.
R. Tamblyn, Girard, N., Dixon, W. G., Haas, J., Bates, D. W., Sheppard, T., Eguale, T., Buckeridge, D., Abrahamowicz, M., and Forster, A., Pharmacosurveillance without borders: electronic health records in different countries can be used to address important methodological issues in estimating the risk of adverse events, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 77, pp. 101-111, 2016.
A. Matthews, Langan, S. M., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and Risk of Malignant Melanoma: Matched Cohort Study Using Primary Care Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS Med, vol. 13, p. e1002037, 2016.
Y. Lian, Yin, H., Pollak, M. N., Carrier, S., Platt, R. W., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors and the Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer, Eur Urol, vol. 70, pp. 808-815, 2016.
P. Korhonen, Heintjes, E. M., Williams, R., Hoti, F., Christopher, S., Majak, M., Kool-Houweling, L., Strongman, H., Linder, M., Dolin, P., and Bahmanyar, S., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using datasets from four European countries, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3903, 2016.
M. Tuccori, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 352, p. i1541, 2016.
S. A. Julious, Horspool, M. J., Davis, S., Bradburn, M., Norman, P., Shephard, N., Cooper, C. L., Smithson, W. H., Boote, J., Elphick, H., Loban, A., Franklin, M., Kua, W. S., May, R., Campbell, J., Williams, R., Rex, S., and Bortolami, O., PLEASANT: Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-age children Associated with a New Term - a cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation, Health Technol Assess, vol. 20, pp. 1-154, 2016.
M. Alexander, Ding, Y., Foskett, N., Petri, H., Wandel, C., and Khwaja, O., Population prevalence of Down's syndrome in the United Kingdom, J Intellect Disabil Res, vol. 60, pp. 874-8, 2016.
J. C. Wilson, Furlano, R. I., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., A population-based study examining the risk of malignancy in patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, J Gastroenterol, vol. 51, pp. 1050-1062, 2016.
D. Price, Wilson, A. M., Chisholm, A., Rigazio, A., Burden, A., Thomas, M., and King, C., Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice, J Asthma Allergy, vol. 9, pp. 1-12, 2016.
C. Klop, de Vries, F., Bijlsma, J. W., Leufkens, H. G., and Welsing, P. M., Predicting the 10-year risk of hip and major osteoporotic fracture in rheumatoid arthritis and in the general population: an independent validation and update of UK FRAX without bone mineral density, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 2095-2100, 2016.
C. Renoux, Shin, J. Y., Dell'Aniello, S., Fergusson, E., and Suissa, S., Prescribing trends of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in UK primary care, 1995-2015, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 858-68, 2016.
K. E. Mansfield, Nitsch, D., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., and Tomlinson, L. A., Prescription of renin-angiotensin system blockers and risk of acute kidney injury: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012690, 2016.
L. Hassan, Senior, J., Webb, R. T., Frisher, M., Tully, M. P., While, D., and Shaw, J. J., Prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic medication prescribing in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of male and female prisoners in England, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 16, p. 346, 2016.
J. R. DiBello, Ioannou, C., Rees, J., Challacombe, B., Maskell, J., Choudhury, N., Kastner, C., and Kirby, M., Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among men with and without clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: a large, cross-sectional, UK epidemiological study, BJU Int, vol. 117, pp. 801-8, 2016.
S. Moss, Melia, J., Sutton, J., Mathews, C., and Kirby, M., Prostate-specific antigen testing rates and referral patterns from general practice data in England, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 70, pp. 312-8, 2016.
F. Othman, Card, T. R., and Crooks, C. J., Proton pump inhibitor prescribing patterns in the UK: a primary care database study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1079-87, 2016.
D. Ilo, Raluy-Callado, M., Graham-Clarke, P., Sadasivan, R., Birt, J., Donaldson, R., Zhu, E., Kirby, M. G., and Neasham, D., Patient characteristics and treatment patterns for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction or co-occurring benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction in general practices in the UK: a retrospective observational study, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 69, pp. 853-62, 2015.
M. J. Ridd, Ferreira, D. L., Montgomery, A. A., Salisbury, C., and Hamilton, W., Patient-doctor continuity and diagnosis of cancer: electronic medical records study in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 65, pp. e305-11, 2015.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., Brindle, P., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Patients who discontinued statin treatment: a protocol for cohort study using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008701, 2015.
T. P. Chu, Shah, A., Walker, D., and Coleman, M. P., Pattern of symptoms and signs of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults: a record linkage study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 1115-22, 2015.
F. X. Lamy, Chollet, J., Clay, E., Brignone, M., Rive, B., and Saragoussi, D., Pharmacotherapeutic strategies for patients treated for depression in UK primary care: a database analysis, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 31, pp. 795-807, 2015.
D. Levin, Bell, S., Sund, R., Hartikainen, S. A., Tuomilehto, J., Pukkala, E., Keskimaki, I., Badrick, E., Renehan, A. G., Buchan, I. E., Bowker, S. L., Minhas-Sandhu, J. K., Zafari, Z., Marra, C., Johnson, J. A., Stricker, B. H., Uitterlinden, A. G., Hofman, A., Ruiter, R., de Keyser, C. E., MacDonald, T. M., Wild, S. H., McKeigue, P. M., and Colhoun, H. M., Pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk: a multipopulation pooled, cumulative exposure analysis, Diabetologia, vol. 58, pp. 493-504, 2015.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a decreased risk of incident gout: a population-based case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 1651-8, 2015.
B. M. Hicks, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Post-diagnostic oral bisphosphonate use and colorectal cancer mortality: a population-based cohort study within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Cancer, vol. 113, pp. 123-6, 2015.
E. Edson-Heredia, Zhu, B., Lefevre, C., Wang, M., Barrett, A., Bushe, C. J., Cox, A., Wu, J. J., and Maeda-Chubachi, T., Prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and other diseases in patients with psoriatic or psoriatic arthritis: a retrospective study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, vol. 29, pp. 955-63, 2015.
S. Jick, Li, L., Gastanaga, V. M., and Liede, A., Prevalence of hypercalcemia of malignancy among cancer patients in the UK: analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 39, pp. 901-7, 2015.
M. J. Horspool, Julious, S. A., Mooney, C., May, R., Sully, B., and Smithson, W. H., Preventing and Lessening Exacerbations of Asthma in School-aged children Associated with a New Term (PLEASANT): Recruiting Primary Care Research Sites-the PLEASANT experience, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 25, p. 15066, 2015.
J. C. Wilson, Toovey, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Previously diagnosed influenza infections and the risk of developing epilepsy, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 143, pp. 2408-15, 2015.
E. Kontopantelis, Olier, I., Planner, C., Reeves, D., Ashcroft, D. M., Gask, L., Doran, T., and Reilly, S., Primary care consultation rates among people with and without severe mental illness: a UK cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008650, 2015.
[Page last reviewed 6 September 2019]