Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P. P., Majeed, F. A., Cowie, M. R., and Hayhoe, B., Real-world presentation with heart failure in primary care: do patients selected to follow diagnostic and management guidelines have better outcomes?, Open Heart, vol. 5, p. e000935, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Moore, E., Lewis, A., Hashmi, M., Sultana, K., Wright, M., Smeeth, L., Chatzidiakou, L., Jones, R., Beevers, S., Kolozali, S., Kelly, F., and Barratt, B., Recruitment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for research, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 21, 2018.
S. R. Markar, Arhi, C., Wiggins, T., Vidal-Diez, A., Karthikesalingam, A., Darzi, A., Lagergren, J., and Hanna, G. B., Reintervention After Antireflux Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in England, Ann Surg, 2018.
G. Geulayov, Ferrey, A., Casey, D., Wells, C., Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Gunnell, D., Clements, C., Kapur, N., Ness, J., Waters, K., and Hawton, K., Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines and hypnotics commonly used for self-poisoning: An epidemiological study of fatal toxicity and case fatality, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 32, pp. 654-662, 2018.
A. E. Ferrey, Geulayov, G., Casey, D., Wells, C., Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Ness, J., Clements, C., Gunnell, D., Kapur, N., and Hawton, K., Relative toxicity of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics: case fatality and fatal toxicity associated with self-poisoning, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 18, p. 399, 2018.
G. Dell'Agnello, Desai, U., Kirson, N. Y., Wen, J., Meiselbach, M. K., Reed, C. C., Belger, M., Lenox-Smith, A., Martinez, C., and Rasmussen, J., Reliability of coded data to identify earliest indications of cognitive decline, cognitive evaluation and Alzheimer's disease diagnosis: a pilot study in England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019684, 2018.
R. Costello, Jacklin, C., M. Evans, J., McBeth, J., and Dixon, W. G., Representativeness of a digitally engaged population and a patient organisation population with rheumatoid arthritis and their willingness to participate in research: a cross-sectional study, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000664, 2018.
S. Rajaram, Wiecek, W., Lawson, R., Blak, B., Zhao, Y., Hackett, J., Brody, R., Salimi, T., Amzal, B., and Patel, V., A retrospective observational analysis of post-pandemic influenza-related outcomes in the United Kingdom, 2010-2014, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol. 14, pp. 368-377, 2018.
A. Abhishek, Nakafero, G., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., Grainge, M. J., and Doherty, M., Rheumatoid arthritis and excess mortality: down but not out. A primary care cohort study using data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 977-981, 2018.
S. Gale, Wilson, J. C., Chia, J., Trinh, H., Tuckwell, K., Collinson, N., Dimonaco, S., Jick, S., Meier, C., Mohan, S. V., and Sarsour, K., Risk Associated with Cumulative Oral Glucocorticoid Use in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis in Real-World Databases from the USA and UK, Rheumatol Ther, 2018.
E. L. Axson, Bual, N., Bloom, C. I., and Quint, J. K., Risk factors and secondary care utilisation in a primary care population with non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease in the UK, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2018.
P. Karimi, Birmann, B. M., Anderson, L. A., McShane, C. M., Gadalla, S. M., Sampson, J. N., and Mbulaiteye, S. M., Risk factors for Burkitt lymphoma: a nested case-control study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Haematol, vol. 181, pp. 505-514, 2018.
J. J. Lee, Bankhead, C., Smith, M., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Risk factors for influenza-related complications in children during the 2009/10 pandemic: a UK primary care cohort study using linked routinely collected data, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 146, pp. 817-823, 2018.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Pickrell, W. O., Carr, M. J., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk factors for self-harm in people with epilepsy, J Neurol, vol. 265, pp. 3009-3016, 2018.
J. van Dalem, Brouwers, M., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Krings, A., Klungel, O. H., Driessen, J. H. M., de Vries, F., and Burden, A. M., Risk of a first-ever acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality with sulphonylurea treatment: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 1056-1060, 2018.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002652, 2018.
M. Roughley, Sultan, A. A., Clarson, L., Muller, S., Whittle, R., Belcher, J., Mallen, C. D., and Roddy, E., Risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with gout and the impact of urate lowering therapy: a population-based cohort study, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 20, p. 243, 2018.
Z. Paskins, Whittle, R., Sultan, A. A., Muller, S., Blagojevic-Bucknall, M., Helliwell, T., Hider, S., Roddy, E., and Mallen, C., Risk of fracture among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 4, 2018.
A. A. Sultan, Whittle, R., Muller, S., Roddy, E., Mallen, C. D., Bucknall, M., Helliwell, T., Hider, S., and Paskins, Z., Risk of fragility fracture among patients with gout and the effect of urate-lowering therapy, Cmaj, vol. 190, pp. E581-e587, 2018.
Z. Paskins, Whittle, R., A. Sultan, A., Muller, S., Blagojevic-Bucknall, M., Helliwell, T., Packham, J., Hider, S., Roddy, E., and Mallen, C., Risk of fragility fracture among patients with late-onset psoriasis: a UK population-based study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 1659-1664, 2018.
J. M. Gamble, Donnan, J. R., Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., The risk of fragility fractures in new users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to sulfonylureas and other anti-diabetic drugs: A cohort study, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 136, pp. 159-167, 2018.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O. M., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., and Purkayastha, S., Risk of GERD-Related Disorders in Obese Patients on PPI Therapy: a Population Analysis, Obes Surg, vol. 28, pp. 2796-2803, 2018.
M. Blagojevic-Bucknall, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hayward, R., West, S., Choi, H., and Roddy, E., The risk of gout among patients with sleep apnea: a matched cohort study, Arthritis Rheumatol, 2018.
T. Burkard, Hugle, T., Layton, J. B., Glynn, R. J., Bloechliger, M., Frey, N., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Risk of Incident Osteoarthritis of the Hand in Statin Initiators: A Sequential Cohort Study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 70, pp. 1795-1805, 2018.
I. M. Carey, Critchley, J. A., DeWilde, S., Harris, T., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Risk of Infection in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Compared With the General Population: A Matched Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 513-521, 2018.
Y. Wang, Pfeiffer, R. M., Alsaggaf, R., Meeraus, W., Gage, J. C., Anderson, L. A., Bremer, R. C., Nikolenko, N., Lochmuller, H., Greene, M. H., and Gadalla, S. M., Risk of skin cancer among patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 based on primary care physician data from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Int J Cancer, vol. 142, pp. 1174-1181, 2018.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2018.
H. C. Gorton, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., DelPozo-Banos, M., John, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Unnatural Mortality in People With Epilepsy, JAMA Neurol, vol. 75, pp. 929-938, 2018.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C. H., and McHugh, N., Risk of uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease in people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 77, pp. 277-280, 2018.
E. Martin-Merino, Petersen, I., Hawley, S., Alvarez-Gutierrez, A., Khalid, S., Llorente-Garcia, A., Delmestri, A., Javaid, M. K., van Staa, T. P., Judge, A., Cooper, C., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Risk of venous thromboembolism among users of different anti-osteoporosis drugs: a population-based cohort analysis including over 200,000 participants from Spain and the UK, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 467-478, 2018.
T. P. C. Chu, Grainge, M. J., and Card, T. R., The risk of venous thromboembolism during and after hospitalisation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease activity, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 48, pp. 1099-1108, 2018.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., Hill, T., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Risks and benefits of direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in a real world setting: cohort study in primary care, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2505, 2018.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P., Cowie, M. R., Majeed, A., and Hayhoe, B., Routes to diagnosis of heart failure: observational study using linked data in England, Heart, vol. 104, pp. 600-605, 2018.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. - C., Choitir, C. N., Tierney, T. S., Taylor, R. S., Manca, A., Bruce, J., Cumming, D., and Eldabe, S., The rate of persistent post-operative pain (FBSS) in revision lumbar spinal surgery, The Spine Journal, vol. 17, p. S10, 2017.
J. van Boven, Benhaddi, H., Roche, N., Bjermer, L., Miravitlles, M., Voorham, J., and Price, D., Real-world cost effectiveness comparison of symbicort turbuhaler and duoresp spiromax in UK patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A645, 2017.
D. Lambrelli, Merinopoulou, E., Donaldson, R., Mardekian, J., Hlavacek, P., Tarasenko, L., Masseria, C., and Hobbs, F. D., Real-world treatment patterns among patients initiating on statins in England, Value in Health, vol. 20, pp. A630-631, 2017.
S. Kiconco, A. Sultan, A., and Grainge, M. J., Recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism and hormone use in women from England: a cohort study using clinical practice research datalink, Br J Haematol, vol. 177, pp. 127-135, 2017.
D. A. Springate, Parisi, R., Olier, I., Reeves, D., and Kontopantelis, E., rEHR: An R package for manipulating and analysing Electronic Health Record data, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0171784, 2017.
A. Viswanathan, Spera, C., Mullins, A., Covert, D., Banhazi, J., McDwyer, P., Hudson, E., and Ferreira, A., Resource Utilization Among Glaucoma Patients in the UK Treated with Beta-Blocker and Non-Beta-Blocker Adjunctive Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis, Adv Ther, vol. 34, pp. 1695-1706, 2017.
D. R. Morales, Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., Jackson, C., and Guthrie, B., Respiratory effect of beta-blockers in people with asthma and cardiovascular disease: population-based nested case control study, BMC Med, vol. 15, p. 18, 2017.
B. Doble, Payne, R., Harshfield, A., and Wilson, E. C. F., Retrospective, multicohort analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to determine differences in the cost of medication wastage, dispensing fees and prescriber time of issuing either short (<60 days) or long (>/=60 days) prescription leng, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e019382, 2017.
A. Abhishek, Doherty, M., Kuo, C. F., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., and Grainge, M. J., Rheumatoid arthritis is getting less frequent-results of a nationwide population-based cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 736-744, 2017.
A. Jain, McDonald, H. I., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk factors for developing acute kidney injury in older people with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based UK cohort study, BMC Nephrol, vol. 18, p. 142, 2017.
E. Berni, de Voogd, H., Halcox, J. P., Butler, C. C., Bannister, C. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., Jones, B., Ouwens, M., and Currie, C. J., Risk of cardiovascular events, arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin versus alternative antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013398, 2017.
S. Walker and Hamilton, W., Risk of cervical cancer in symptomatic women aged >/=40 in primary care: A case-control study using electronic records, Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), vol. 26, 2017.
D. C. Braeken, Rohde, G. G., Franssen, F. M., Driessen, J. H., van Staa, T. P., Souverein, P. C., Wouters, E. F., and de Vries, F., Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stratified by smoking status: a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 12, pp. 2425-2432, 2017.
K. W. Hagberg, Divan, H. A., Fang, S. C., Nickel, J. C., and Jick, S. S., Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 83-91, 2017.
J. West, Card, T. R., Aithal, G. P., and Fleming, K. M., Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among individuals with different aetiologies of cirrhosis: a population-based cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 45, pp. 983-990, 2017.
K. W. Hagberg, Divan, H. A., Nickel, J. C., and Jick, S. S., Risk of Incident Antidepressant-Treated Depression Associated with Use of 5alpha-Reductase Inhibitors Compared with Use of alpha-Blockers in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Population-Based Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, pp. 517-527, 2017.
B. Spaetgens, de Vries, F., Driessen, J. H. M., Leufkens, H. G., Souverein, P. C., Boonen, A., van der Meer, J. W. M., and Joosten, L. A. B., Risk of infections in patients with gout: a population-based cohort study, Sci Rep, vol. 7, p. 1429, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]