Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. Kiconco, A. Sultan, A., and Grainge, M. J., Recurrence risk of venous thromboembolism and hormone use in women from England: a cohort study using clinical practice research datalink, Br J Haematol, vol. 177, pp. 127-135, 2017.
K. Khunti, Wolden, M. L., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., and Davies, M. J., Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 3411-7, 2013.
K. Khunti, Nikolajsen, A., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., Davies, M. J., and Paul, S. K., Clinical inertia with regard to intensifying therapy in people with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 401-9, 2016.
K. Khunti, Danese, M. D., Kutikova, L., Catterick, D., Sorio-Vilela, F., Gleeson, M., Seshasai, S. R. Kondapa, Brownrigg, J., and Ray, K. K., Association of a Combined Measure of Adherence and Treatment Intensity With Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Atherosclerosis or Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Treated With Statins and/or Ezetimibe, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 1, p. e185554, 2018.
K. Khunti, Davies, M., Majeed, A., Thorsted, B. L., Wolden, M. L., and Paul, S. K., Hypoglycemia and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in insulin-treated people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 316-22, 2015.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Yin, H., Barkun, A., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase inhibitors and the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, Ann Oncol, vol. 29, pp. 744-748, 2018.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Rej, S., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Dementia in Patients With Prostate Cancer, J Clin Oncol, vol. 35, pp. 201-207, 2017.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Filion, K. B., Bouganim, N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Circulation, vol. 141, pp. 549-559, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
A. S. Khashan, Quigley, E. M., McNamee, R., McCarthy, F. P., Shanahan, F., and Kenny, L. C., Increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy among women with irritable bowel syndrome, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 10, pp. 902-9, 2012.
U. T. Khan, Walker, A. J., Baig, S., Card, T. R., Kirwan, C. C., and Grainge, M. J., Venous thromboembolism and mortality in breast cancer: cohort study with systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Cancer, vol. 17, p. 747, 2017.
T. Khan, Alvand, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Culliford, D. J., Judge, A., Jackson, W. F., Scammell, B. E., Arden, N. K., and Price, A. J., ACL and meniscal injuries increase the risk of primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis: a matched case-control study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Br J Sports Med, 2018.
N. F. Khan, Mant, D., Carpenter, L., Forman, D., and Rose, P. W., Long-term health outcomes in a British cohort of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors: a database study, Br J Cancer, vol. 105 Suppl 1, pp. S29-37, 2011.
N. F. Khan, Watson, E., and Rose, P. W., Primary care consultation behaviours of long-term, adult survivors of cancer in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 61, pp. 197-9, 2011.
N. F. Khan, Harrison, S. E., and Rose, P. W., Validity of diagnostic coding within the General Practice Research Database: a systematic review, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 60, pp. e128-36, 2010.
N. F. Khan, Mant, D., and Rose, P. W., Quality of care for chronic diseases in a British cohort of long-term cancer survivors, Ann Fam Med, vol. 8, pp. 418-24, 2010.
N. F. Khan, Perera, R., Harper, S., and Rose, P. W., Adaptation and validation of the Charlson Index for Read/OXMIS coded databases, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 11, p. 1, 2010.
N. F. Khan, Ward, A. M., Watson, E., and Rose, P. W., Consulting and prescribing behaviour for anxiety and depression in long-term survivors of cancer in the UK, Eur J Cancer, vol. 46, pp. 3339-44, 2010.
J. M. Khalid, Raluy-Callado, M., Curtis, B. H., Boye, K. S., Maguire, A., and Reaney, M., Rates and risk of hospitalisation among patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database linked to English Hospital Episode Statistics, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 68, pp. 40-8, 2014.
S. Khalid, Calderon-Larranaga, S., Hawley, S., Ali, M. S., Judge, A., Arden, N., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Comparative anti-fracture effectiveness of different oral anti-osteoporosis therapies based on "real-world" data: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1417-1431, 2018.
A. Keyany, Nielen, J. T. H., Souverein, P. C., de Vries, F., and van den Bemt, B., Use of parenteral glucocorticoids and the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 139, pp. 100-106, 2018.
D. Kernick, Stapley, S., Campbell, J., and Hamilton, W., What happens to new-onset headache in children that present to primary care? A case-cohort study using electronic primary care records, Cephalalgia, vol. 29, pp. 1311-6, 2009.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., van den Berge, M., Brusselle, G. G., Gopalan, G., Jones, R. C. M., Kocks, J. W. H., Menzies-Gow, A., Nuevo, J., Pavord, I. D., Rastogi, S., and Price, D. B., Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0201143, 2018.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., Soriano, J. B., Golam, S., Gibson, D., Hillyer, E. V., and Price, D. B., Healthcare resource use and costs of severe, uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma in the UK general population, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 116-124, 2018.
M. Kerkhof, Voorham, J., Dorinsky, P., Cabrera, C., Darken, P., Kocks, J. W., Sadatsafavi, M., Sin, D. D., Carter, V., and Price, D. B., Association between COPD exacerbations and lung function decline during maintenance therapy, Thorax, 2020.
S. Kent, Jebb, S. A., Gray, A., Green, J., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Mihaylova, B., and Cairns, B. J., Body mass index and use and costs of primary care services among women aged 55-79 years in England: a cohort and linked data study, Int J Obes (Lond), 2018.
A. Kennerfalk, Ruigomez, A., Wallander, M. A., Wilhelmsen, L., and Johansson, S., Geriatric drug therapy and healthcare utilization in the United kingdom, Ann Pharmacother, vol. 36, pp. 797-803, 2002.
T. Kendrick, Stuart, B., Newell, C., Geraghty, A. W., and Moore, M., Did NICE guidelines and the Quality Outcomes Framework change GP antidepressant prescribing in England? Observational study with time trend analyses 2003-2013, J Affect Disord, vol. 186, pp. 171-7, 2015.
T. Kendrick, Stuart, B., Newell, C., Geraghty, A. W., and Moore, M., Changes in rates of recorded depression in English primary care 2003-2013: Time trend analyses of effects of the economic recession, and the GP contract quality outcomes framework (QOF), J Affect Disord, vol. 180, pp. 68-78, 2015.
F. Kelly, Armstrong, B., Atkinson, R., Anderson, H. R., Barratt, B., Beevers, S., Cook, D., Green, D., Derwent, D., Mudway, I., and Wilkinson, P., The London low emission zone baseline study, Res Rep Health Eff Inst, pp. 3-79, 2011.
P. G. Kehoe, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., Associations of angiotensin targeting antihypertensive drugs with mortality and hospitalization in primary care patients with dementia, J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 33, pp. 999-1008, 2013.
J. A. Kaye, Margulis, A. V., Fortuny, J., McQuay, L. J., Plana, E., Bartsch, J. L., Bui, C. L., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Arana, A., Cancer Incidence after Initiation of Antimuscarinic Medications for Overactive Bladder in the United Kingdom: Evidence for Protopathic Bias, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, pp. 673-683, 2017.
J. A. Kaye, Derby, L. E., M. Melero-Montes, delMar, Quinn, M., and Jick, H., The incidence of breast cancer in the General Practice Research Database compared with national cancer registration data, Br J Cancer, vol. 83, pp. 1556-8, 2000.
J. A. Kaye, M. Melero-Montes, delMar, and Jick, H., Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis, Bmj, vol. 322, pp. 460-3, 2001.
J. A. Kaye, Myers, M. W., and Jick, H., Acetaminophen and the risk of renal and bladder cancer in the general practice research database, Epidemiology, vol. 12, pp. 690-4, 2001.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Antibiotics and the risk of breast cancer, Epidemiology, vol. 16, pp. 688-90, 2005.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Epidemiology of lower limb fractures in general practice in the United Kingdom, Inj Prev, vol. 10, pp. 368-74, 2004.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Statin use and cancer risk in the General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 90, pp. 635-7, 2004.
J. A. Kaye, Meier, C. R., Walker, A. M., and Jick, H., Statin use, hyperlipidaemia, and the risk of breast cancer, Br J Cancer, vol. 86, pp. 1436-9, 2002.
J. A. Kaye, Bradbury, B. D., and Jick, H., Changes in antipsychotic drug prescribing by general practitioners in the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2000: a population-based observational study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 56, pp. 569-75, 2003.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Incidence of erectile dysfunction and characteristics of patients before and after the introduction of sildenafil in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study with comparison patients, Bmj, vol. 326, pp. 424-5, 2003.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of hip fractures in patients without major risk factors, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 28, pp. 951-9, 2008.
P. Kasteridis, Ride, J., Gutacker, N., Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Siddiqi, N., Williams, R., and Jacobs, R., Association Between Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Outcomes for People With Serious Mental Illness in England, Psychiatr Serv, p. appips201800504, 2019.
G. Karystianis, Sheppard, T., Dixon, W. G., and Nenadic, G., Modelling and extraction of variability in free-text medication prescriptions from an anonymised primary care electronic medical record research database, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 16, p. 18, 2016.
I. Karp, Sivaswamy, A., and Booth, C., Does the use of incretin-based medications increase the risk of cancer in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
P. Karimi, Birmann, B. M., Anderson, L. A., McShane, C. M., Gadalla, S. M., Sampson, J. N., and Mbulaiteye, S. M., Risk factors for Burkitt lymphoma: a nested case-control study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Haematol, vol. 181, pp. 505-514, 2018.
R. A. Karasneh, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C. M., and Cardwell, C. R., Digoxin use after diagnosis of prostate cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1099-103, 2016.
R. A. Karasneh, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C. M., and Cardwell, C. R., Digoxin use after diagnosis of colorectal cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 24, pp. 1804-7, 2015.
R. A. Karasneh, Murray, L. J., Menamin, U. C. Mc, Hughes, C. M., and Cardwell, C. R., Digoxin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 151, pp. 661-9, 2015.
J. Y. Kang, Tinto, A., Higham, J., and Majeed, A., Peptic ulceration in general practice in England and Wales 1994-98: period prevalence and drug management, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 16, pp. 1067-74, 2002.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]