Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., and Freedman, S. B., Adverse prognosis of incidentally detected ambulatory atrial fibrillation. A cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 112, pp. 276-86, 2014.
T. Wrigley, Tinto, A., and Majeed, A., Age and sex specific antibiotic prescribing patterns in general practice in England and Wales, 1994 to 1998., Health Stat Q, vol. 14, pp. 14-20, 2002.
A. Majeed and Moser, K., Age- and sex-specific antibiotic prescribing patterns in general practice in England and Wales in 1996, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 49, pp. 735-6, 1999.
A. K. Wright, Welsh, P., Gill, J. M. R., Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., and Sattar, N., Age-, sex- and ethnicity-related differences in body weight, blood pressure, HbA(1c) and lipid levels at the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes relative to people without diabetes, Diabetologia, 2020.
A. Majeed, Moser, K., and Maxwell, R., Age, sex and practice variations in the use of statins in general practice in England and Wales, J Public Health Med, vol. 22, pp. 275-9, 2000.
M. Ashworth, Charlton, J., Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M., Age-related changes in consultations and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections, 1995-2000. Data from the UK General Practice Research Database, J Clin Pharm Ther, vol. 31, pp. 461-7, 2006.
S. Bou-Antoun, Costelloe, C., Honeyford, K., Mazidi, M., Hayhoe, B. W. J., Holmes, A., Johnson, A. P., and Aylin, P., Age-related decline in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated respiratory tract infections in primary care in England following the introduction of a national financial incentive (the Quality Premium) for health commissioners to reduce use of antibiotic, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 73, pp. 2883-2892, 2018.
D. Nitsch, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Fletcher, A., Age-related macular degeneration and complement activation-related diseases: a population-based case-control study, Ophthalmology, vol. 115, pp. 1904-10, 2008.
H. Wallace, Shorvon, S., and Tallis, R., Age-specific incidence and prevalence rates of treated epilepsy in an unselected population of 2,052,922 and age-specific fertility rates of women with epilepsy, Lancet, vol. 352, pp. 1970-3, 1998.
J. D. Lewis and Brensinger, C., Agreement between GPRD smoking data: a survey of general practitioners and a population-based survey, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 437-41, 2004.
R. Jones, Charlton, J., Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M. C., Alarm symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 339, p. b3094, 2009.
R. Jones, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M. C., Alarm symptoms in early diagnosis of cancer in primary care: cohort study using General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 334, p. 1040, 2007.
D. Stewart, Han, L., Doran, T., and McCambridge, J., Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality: an analysis of general practice database records for patients with long-term conditions, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 71, pp. 729-735, 2017.
R. Parisi, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., Moriarty, K. J., Kleyn, C. E., Griffiths, C. E. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Alcohol-Related Mortality in Patients With Psoriasis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, JAMA Dermatol, vol. 153, pp. 1256-1262, 2017.
A. D. Shah and Martinez, C., An algorithm to derive a numerical daily dose from unstructured text dosage instructions, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 15, pp. 161-6, 2006.
B. Cai, Xu, W., Bortnichak, E., and Watson, D. J., An algorithm to identify medical practices common to both the General Practice Research Database and The Health Improvement Network database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 770-774, 2012.
S. Muller, Hider, S. L., Raza, K., Stack, R. J., Hayward, R. A., and Mallen, C. D., An algorithm to identify rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e009309, 2015.
S. de Lusignan, Liaw, S. T., Dedman, D., Khunti, K., Sadek, K., and Jones, S., An algorithm to improve diagnostic accuracy in diabetes in computerised problem orientated medical records (POMR) compared with an established algorithm developed in episode orientated records (EOMR), J Innov Health Inform, vol. 22, pp. 255-64, 2015.
S. V. Eastwood, Mathur, R., Atkinson, M., Brophy, S., Sudlow, C., Flaig, R., de Lusignan, S., Allen, N., and Chaturvedi, N., Algorithms for the Capture and Adjudication of Prevalent and Incident Diabetes in UK Biobank, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162388, 2016.
K. S. Taylor, Heneghan, C. J., Farmer, A. J., Fuller, A. M., Adler, A. I., Aronson, J. K., and Stevens, R. J., All-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes compared with people without diabetes in a large U.K. primary care database, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 2366-71, 2013.
D. J. Watson, Rhodes, T., and Guess, H. A., All-cause mortality and vascular events among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or no arthritis in the UK General Practice Research Database, J Rheumatol, vol. 30, pp. 1196-202, 2003.
K. M. Fleming, Aithal, G. P., Card, T. R., and West, J., All-cause mortality in people with cirrhosis compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study, Liver Int, vol. 32, pp. 79-84, 2012.
S. S. Soedamah-Muthu, Fuller, J. H., Mulnier, H. E., Raleigh, V. S., Lawrenson, R. A., and Colhoun, H. M., All-cause mortality rates in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with a non-diabetic population from the UK general practice research database, 1992-1999, Diabetologia, vol. 49, pp. 660-6, 2006.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Allergic disease, corticosteroid use and risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A UK Nationwide case-control study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
A. Alonso, Jick, S. S., and Hernan, M. A., Allergy, histamine 1 receptor blockers, and the risk of multiple sclerosis, Neurology, vol. 66, pp. 572-5, 2006.
R. L. MacIsaac, Salatzki, J., Higgins, P., Walters, M. R., Padmanabhan, S., Dominiczak, A. F., Touyz, R. M., and Dawson, J., Allopurinol and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With Hypertension, Hypertension, vol. 67, pp. 535-40, 2016.
C. J. Beattie, Fulton, R. L., Higgins, P., Padmanabhan, S., McCallum, L., Walters, M. R., Dominiczak, A. F., Touyz, R. M., and Dawson, J., Allopurinol initiation and change in blood pressure in older adults with hypertension, Hypertension, vol. 64, pp. 1102-7, 2014.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Niazi, M. T., Yin, H., Benayoun, S., and Suissa, S., Androgen deprivation therapy and risk of acute kidney injury in patients with prostate cancer, Jama, vol. 310, pp. 289-96, 2013.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., Bitton, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 184, pp. 15-22, 2016.
B. M. Hicks, Klil-Drori, A. J., Yin, H., Campeau, L., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Anemia in Men with Prostate Cancer, Epidemiology, vol. 28, pp. 712-718, 2017.
J. Assayag, Yin, H., Benayoun, S., Pollak, M. N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Androgen deprivation therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with prostate cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 839-45, 2013.
E. Martin-Merino, Johansson, S., Morris, T., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Androgen deprivation therapy and the risk of coronary heart disease and heart failure in patients with prostate cancer: a nested case-control study in UK primary care, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 1061-77, 2011.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Rej, S., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Dementia in Patients With Prostate Cancer, J Clin Oncol, vol. 35, pp. 201-207, 2017.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Bladou, F., Ernst, P., and Azoulay, L., Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 596-597, 2017.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Santella, C., Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Yin, H., Tagalakis, V., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism, Eur Urol, vol. 70, pp. 56-61, 2016.
L. Azoulay, Yin, H., Benayoun, S., Renoux, C., Boivin, J. F., and Suissa, S., Androgen-deprivation therapy and the risk of stroke in patients with prostate cancer, Eur Urol, vol. 60, pp. 1244-50, 2011.
A. J. Walker, West, J., Grainge, M. J., and Card, T. R., Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in the General Practice Research Database, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 22, pp. 1743-7, 2011.
B. M. Hicks, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Sakr, L., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and risk of lung cancer: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 363, p. k4209, 2018.
J. Busby, McMenamin, U., Spence, A., Johnston, B. T., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Angiotensin receptor blocker use and gastro-oesophageal cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 47, pp. 279-288, 2018.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
K. L. Goh, Bhaskaran, K., Minassian, C., Evans, S. J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia: cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 337-50, 2015.
G. A. Makar, Holmes, J. H., and Yang, Y. X., Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and colorectal cancer risk, J Natl Cancer Inst, vol. 106, p. djt374, 2014.
E. M. van de Garde, Souverein, P. C., Hak, E., Deneer, V. H., van den Bosch, J. M., and Leufkens, H. G., Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use and protection against pneumonia in patients with diabetes, J Hypertens, vol. 25, pp. 235-9, 2007.
C. R. Meier, Derby, L. E., Jick, S. S., and Jick, H., Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and breast cancer, Arch Intern Med, vol. 160, pp. 349-53, 2000.
R. Hubbard, Venn, A., Lewis, S., and Britton, J., Anitdepressant exposure and risk of Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis (CFA): A case-control study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), vol. 53, p. A11, 1998.
I. Essers, Stolwijk, C., Boonen, A., De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., de Vries, F., and van Tubergen, A., Ankylosing spondylitis and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 203-9, 2016.
V. Schneider-Lindner, Quach, C., Hanley, J. A., and Suissa, S., Antibacterial drugs and the risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 165, pp. 1107-14, 2011.
I. Petersen and Hayward, A. C., Antibacterial prescribing in primary care, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 60 Suppl 1, pp. i43-47, 2007.
M. Nowakowska, Van Staa, T., Molter, A., Ashcroft, D. M., Tsang, J. Y., White, A., Welfare, W., and Palin, V., Antibiotic choice in UK general practice: rates and drivers of potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]