Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 April 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF March 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 313 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB April 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Development and validation of a novel risk prediction algorithm to estimate 10-year risk of oesophageal cancer in primary care: prospective cohort study and evaluation of performance against two other risk prediction models


Authors: J. Hippisley-Cox, W. Mei, R. Fitzgerald, C. Coupland


Pre-diagnostic prescribing patterns in dyspnoea patients with as-yet-undiagnosed lung cancer: A longitudinal study of linked primary care and cancer registry data


Authors: B. Wickramasinghe, C. Renzi, M. Barclay, M. Callister, M. Rafiq, G. Lyratzopoulos


Weight change and risk of obesity-related complications: A retrospective population-based cohort study of a UK primary care database


Authors: K. MedSci, V. Schnecke, C. Haase, N. Harder-Lauridsen, N. Rathor, K. Sommer, C. Morgen


Predicting the future risk of lung cancer: development, and internal and external validation of the CanPredict (lung) model in 19·67 million people and evaluation of model performance against seven other risk prediction models


Authors: W. Liao, C. Coupland, J. Burchardt, D. Baldwin, F. Gleeson, J. Hippisley-Cox


Contextualising adverse events of special interest to characterise the baseline incidence rates in 24 million patients with COVID-19 across 26 databases: a multinational retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Voss, A. Shoaibi, Yin Lai, C. Blacketer, T. Alshammari, R. Makadia, K. Haynes, A. Sena, G. Rao, S. van Sandijk, C. Fraboulet, L. Boyer, T. Le Carrour, S. Horban, D. Morales, Martínez Roldán, J. Ramirez-Anguita, M. Mayer, M. de Wilde, L. John, T. Duarte-Salles, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, R. Kolde, F. Maljković, S. Denaxas, V. Papez, M. Kahn, K. Natarajan, C. Reich, A. Secora, E. Minty, N. Shah, J. Posada, M. Morales, D. Bosca, Cadenas Juanino, Diaz Holgado, Pedrera Jiménez, Serrano Balazote, García Barrio, S. Şen, A . Y. Üresin, B. Erdogan, L. Belmans, G. Byttebier, Mlng Malbrain, D. Dedman, Z. Cuccu, R. Vashisht, A. Butte, A. Patel, L. Dahm, C. Han, F. Bu, F. Arshad, A. Ostropolets, F. Nyberg, G. Hripcsak, M. Suchard, D. Prieto-Alhambra, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, P. Ryan


Comparative Effectiveness of Umeclidinium/Vilanterol versus Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Primary Care Setting in England


Authors: A. Czira, G. Requena, V. Banks, R. Wood, T. Tritton, C. Castillo, J. Yeap, R. Wild, C. Compton, K. Rothnie, F. Herth, J. Quint, A. Ismaila


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


Venous thromboembolism following colectomy for diverticular disease: an English population-based cohort study


Authors: Akds Yapa, D. Humes, C. Crooks, C. Lewis-Lloyd


Adverse infant outcomes following low-risk pregnancies in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Developing prediction models to estimate the risk of two survival outcomes both occurring: A comparison of techniques


Authors: A. Pate, M. Sperrin, R. Riley, J. Sergeant, T. Van Staa, N. Peek, M. Mamas, G. Lip, M. O'Flaherty, I. Buchan, G. Martin


The prevalent new-user design for studies with no active comparator: The example of statins and cancer


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Renoux


Polypharmacy and antidepressant acceptability in comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study using UK primary care data


Authors: A. Jeffery, C. Bhanu, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, J. Hayes


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals to musculoskeletal services from primary care and subsequent incidence of inflammatory rheumatic musculoskeletal disease: an observational study


Authors: C. Burton, R. Bajpai, K. Mason, J. Bailey, K. Jordan, C. Mallen, V. Welsh


Inequalities in cancer screening participation between adults with and without severe mental illness: results from a cross-sectional analysis of primary care data on English Screening Programmes


Authors: R. Kerrison, A. Jones, J. Peng, G. Price, J. Verne, E. Barley, C. Lugton


Real-world characterisation of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with and without surgery in England


Authors: V. Benson, Q. Fu, S. Yang, A. Sousa, R. Chan, P. Howarth, C. Hopkins


Independent Associations of Incident Epilepsy and Enzyme-Inducing and Non-Enzyme-Inducing Antiseizure Medications With the Development of Osteoporosis


Authors: C. Josephson, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, S. Denaxas, T. Sajobi, K. Klein, S. Wiebe


The association between antihypertensive treatment and serious adverse events by age and frailty: A cohort study


Authors: J. Sheppard, C. Koshiaris, R. Stevens, S. Lay-Flurrie, A. Banerjee, B. Bellows, A. Clegg, F. Hobbs, R. Payne, S. Swain, J. Usher-Smith, R. McManus


SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: S. Aloe, C. Filliter, S. Salmasi, S. Igweokpala, O. H. Y. Yu, V. Tagalakis, K. Filion


Long-acting insulin analogues and the risk of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Larose, C. Filliter, R. Platt, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


External validation of the QLifetime cardiovascular risk prediction tool: population cohort study


Authors: S. Livingstone, D. Morales, J. Fleuriot, P. Donnan, B. Guthrie


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Real-world study of ethnic differences in glycaemic control and clinical characteristics among insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes initiating biphasic insulin aspart 30/70: A retrospective, observational cohort study in England


Authors: M. Davies, A. Alibegovic, A. Jensen, R. Munikrishnappa, R. Nordsborg, U. Braae


Predictors of persistent postoperative opioid use following colectomy: a population-based cohort study from England


Authors: R. Baamer, D. Humes, L. Toh, R. Knaggs, D. Lobo


Contemporary trends in the utilization of second-line pharmacological therapies for type 2 diabetes in the United States and the United Kingdom


Authors: D. Abrahami, E. D'Andrea, H. Yin, S. Kim, J. Paik, D. Wexler, L. Azoulay, E. Patorno


Prevalence of cancer risk factors among transgender and gender diverse individuals: a cross-sectional analysis using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Brown, R. Pfeiffer, D. Shrewsbury, S. O'Callaghan, A. Berner, S. Gadalla, M. Shiels, S. Jackson


Body mass index and survival in people with heart failure


Authors: N. Jones, J. Ordonez-Mena, A. Roalfe, K. Taylor, C. Goyder, F. Hobbs, C. Taylor


Frequency and impact of medication reviews for people aged 65 years or above in UK primary care: an observational study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Knaggs, C. Coupland, A. Taylor, Y. Vinogradova, D. Butler, L. Gerrard, D. Waldram, B. Iyen, R. Akyea, D. Ashcroft, A. Avery, R. Jack


Ethnic inequities in the patterns of personalized care adjustments for 'informed dissent' and 'patient unsuitable': a retrospective study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: B. Hayanga, M. Stafford, M. Ashworth, J. Hughes, L. Bécares


Health economic impact of moderate-to-severe chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in England: a retrospective analysis of linked primary and secondary care data


Authors: G. Coates, P. Clewes, C. Lohan, H. Stevenson, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Knaggs, A. Dickson, D. Walsh


Real-world evidence from the first online healthcare analytics platform-Livingstone. Validation of its descriptive epidemiology module


Authors: B. Heywood, C. Morgan, T. Berni, D. Summers, B. Jones, S. Jenkins-Jones, S. Holden, L. Riddick, H. Fisher, J. Bateman, C. Bannister, J. Threlfall, A. Buxton, C. Shepherd, E. Mathias, R. Thomason, E. Hubbuck, C. Currie


Comparison of Rescue Medication Prescriptions in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Receiving Umeclidinium/Vilanterol versus Tiotropium Bromide/Olodaterol in Routine Clinical Practice in England


Authors: G. Requena, A. Czira, V. Banks, R. Wood, T. Tritton, C. Castillo, J. Yeap, R. Wild, C. Compton, K. Rothnie, F. Herth, J. Quint, A. Ismaila


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Recent trends in asthma diagnosis, preschool wheeze diagnosis and asthma exacerbations in English children and adolescents: a SABINA Jr study


Authors: C. Kallis, E. Maslova, A. Morgan, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, R. van der Valk, J. Quint, T. Tran


Incidence and prevalence of heart failure in England: a descriptive analysis of linked primary and secondary care data - the PULSE study


Authors: L. Bellanca, S. Linden, R. Farmer


Temporal trends in eating disorder and self-harm incidence rates among adolescents and young adults in the UK in the 2 years since onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study


Authors: A. Trafford, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, C. Chew-Graham, E. Cockcroft, L. Cybulski, E. Garavini, S. Garg, T. Kabir, N. Kapur, R. Temple, R. Webb, P. Mok


The associations of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as add-on to metformin with fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: V. van Hulten, J. Driessen, J. Starup-Linde, Z. Al-Mashhadi, R. Viggers, O. Klungel, P. Souverein, P. Vestergaard, C. Stehouwer, J. van den Bergh


Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in England from 2000 to 2019


Authors: P. Stone, M. Osen, A. Ellis, R. Coaker, J. Quint


Stratification of diabetes in the context of comorbidities, using representation learning and topological data analysis


Authors: M. Wamil, A. Hassaine, S. Rao, Y. Li, M. Mamouei, D. Canoy, M. Nazarzadeh, Z. Bidel, E. Copland, K. Rahimi, G. Salimi-Khorshidi


Persistent high prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among patients with osteoarthritis in the UK in 1992-2017


Authors: D. Yu, X. Huang, M. Mamas, R. Wilkie


Temporal patterns in the recorded annual incidence of common mental disorders over two decades in the United Kingdom: a primary care cohort study


Authors: J. Dykxhoorn, D. Osborn, K. Walters, J. Kirkbride, S. Gnani, A. Lazzarino


Incident cardiovascular, renal, metabolic diseases and death in individuals identified for risk-guided atrial fibrillation screening: a nationwide cohort study


Authors: J. Wu, R. Nadarajah, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, D. Hogg, K. Raveendra, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, C. Cowan, C. Gale


Adverse Outcomes, Healthcare Resource Utilization, and Costs Associated with Systemic Corticosteroid use Among Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the UK


Authors: H. Stirnadel-Farrant, S. Golam, B. Naisbett-Groet, D. Gibson, J. Langham, S. Langham, M. Samnaliev


Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Incidence of Cancer: An Observational Study in England


Authors: F. Zaccardi, S. Ling, K. Brown, M. Davies, K. Khunti


Factors associated with therapeutic inertia in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus started on basal insulin


Authors: S. Shabnam, C. Gillies, M. Davies, T. Dex, E. Melson, K. Khunti, D. Webb, F. Zaccardi, S. Seidu


Association of Different Prescribing Patterns for Oral Corticosteroids With Fracture Preventive Care Among Older Adults in the UK and Ontario


Authors: J. Matthewman, M. Tadrous, K. Mansfield, D. Thiruchelvam, D. Redelmeier, A. Cheung, I. Lega, D. Prieto-Alhambra, L. Cunliffe, A. Mulick, A. Henderson, S. Langan, A. Drucker


Post-initiation predictors of discontinuation of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: A comparative cohort study from the United Kingdom


Authors: W. Alkabbani, B. Shah, A. Zongo, D. Eurich, M. Alsabbagh, J. Gamble


Prevalence and treatment patterns of adult atopic dermatitis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Kleyn, R. McKenzie, A. Meeks, B. Gittens, L. von Arx


Determining prescriptions in electronic healthcare record data: methods for development of standardized, reproducible drug codelists


Authors: E. Graul, P. Stone, G. Massen, S. Hatam, A. Adamson, S. Denaxas, N. Peters, J. Quint


Higher rates of non-skeletal complications and greater healthcare needs in achondroplasia compared to the general UK population: a matched cohort study using the CPRD database


Authors: J. Pimenta, M. Irving, M. Cheung, L. Mazzeo, S. Landis, S. Mukherjee


Fertility Trends and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Female Patients With Psoriasis in the UK


Authors: T. Chen, I. Iskandar, R. Parisi, M. Pierce, C. Tower, C. Kleyn, C. Griffiths, D. Ashcroft