Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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E. M. Gieling, van den Ham, H. A., van Onzenoort, H., Bos, J., Kramers, C., de Boer, A., de Vries, F., and Burden, A. M., Risk of major bleeding and stroke associated with the use of vitamin K antagonists, nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 1844-1859, 2017.
L. M. Stolk, de Vries, F., Ebbelaar, C., de Boer, A., Schalekamp, T., Souverein, P., A. Cate-Hoek, T., and Burden, A. M., Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation using vitamin K antagonists, aspirin or direct acting oral anticoagulants, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 1835-1843, 2017.
N. Frey, Bodmer, M., Bircher, A., Ruegg, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., The risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in new users of antiepileptic drugs, Epilepsia, vol. 58, pp. 2178-2185, 2017.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Risks of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation on hospitalisations for cardiovascular events and respiratory infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, RMD Open, vol. 3, p. e000506, 2017.
M. Riera-Montes, Cattaert, T., and Verstraeten, T. V., Rotavirus vaccination may reduce acute gastroenteritis rates across all age groups in England, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A780, 2017.
R. Krishnamoorthi, Borah, B., Heien, H., Das, A., Chak, A., and Iyer, P. G., Rates and predictors of progression to esophageal carcinoma in a large population-based Barrett's esophagus cohort, Gastrointest Endosc, vol. 84, pp. 40-46.e7, 2016.
K. W. Hagberg, Li, L., Peng, M., Paris, M., Shah, K., and Jick, S. S., Rates of Cancers and Opportunistic Infections in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Compared With Patients Without Psoriatic Arthritis, J Clin Rheumatol, vol. 22, pp. 241-7, 2016.
J. O. Oyinlola, Campbell, J., and Kousoulis, A. A., Is real world evidence influencing practice? A systematic review of CPRD research in NICE guidances, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 16, p. 299, 2016.
K. J. Rothnie, Mullerova, H., Thomas, S. L., Chandan, J. S., Smeeth, L., Hurst, J. R., Davis, K., and Quint, J. K., Recording of hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD in UK electronic health care records, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 8, pp. 771-782, 2016.
H. B. Mehta, Mehta, V., Girman, C. J., Adhikari, D., and Johnson, M. L., Regression coefficient-based scoring system should be used to assign weights to the risk index, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 79, pp. 22-28, 2016.
D. Armstrong, Ashworth, M., Dregan, A., and White, P., The relationship between prior antimicrobial prescription and meningitis: a case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e228-33, 2016.
B. Freedman, Martinez, C., Katholing, A., and Rietbrock, S., Residual Risk of Stroke and Death in Anticoagulant-Treated Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, JAMA Cardiol, vol. 1, pp. 366-8, 2016.
D. R. Morales, Dreischulte, T., Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., Jackson, C., and Guthrie, B., Respiratory effect of beta-blocker eye drops in asthma: population-based study and meta-analysis of clinical trials, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 814-22, 2016.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Rahman, A., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151245, 2016.
J. Spoendlin, Layton, J. B., Mundkur, M., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., The Risk of Achilles or Biceps Tendon Rupture in New Statin Users: A Propensity Score-Matched Sequential Cohort Study, Drug Saf, vol. 39, pp. 1229-1237, 2016.
R. Brauer, Ruigomez, A., Klungel, O., Reynolds, R., M. Tepie, F., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The risk of acute liver injury among users of antibiotic medications: a comparison of case-only studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25 Suppl 1, pp. 39-46, 2016.
F. Zingone, A. Sultan, A., Crooks, C. J., Tata, L. J., Ciacci, C., and West, J., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia among 9803 patients with coeliac disease compared to the general population: a cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 44, pp. 57-67, 2016.
K. W. Hagberg, Divan, H. A., Persson, R., Nickel, J. C., and Jick, S. S., Risk of erectile dysfunction associated with use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia or alopecia: population based studies using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i4823, 2016.
J. van Dalem, Brouwers, M. C., Stehouwer, C. D., Krings, A., Leufkens, H. G., Driessen, J. H., de Vries, F., and Burden, A. M., Risk of hypoglycaemia in users of sulphonylureas compared with metformin in relation to renal function and sulphonylurea metabolite group: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3625, 2016.
M. Movahedi, Beauchamp, M. E., Abrahamowicz, M., Ray, D. W., Michaud, K., Pedro, S., and Dixon, W. G., Risk of Incident Diabetes Mellitus Associated With the Dosage and Duration of Oral Glucocorticoid Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Arthritis Rheumatol, vol. 68, pp. 1089-98, 2016.
C. Willame, Rosillon, D., Zima, J., Angelo, M. G., Stuurman, A. L., Vroling, H., Boggon, R., Bunge, E. M., Pladevall-Vila, M., and Baril, L., Risk of new onset autoimmune disease in 9- to 25-year-old women exposed to human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in the United Kingdom, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol. 12, pp. 2862-2871, 2016.
D. Bornand, Toovey, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., The risk of new onset depression in association with influenza–A population-based observational study, Brain Behav Immun, vol. 53, pp. 131-137, 2016.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Folkerts, K., and Cohen, A. T., Risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism after discontinuation of vitamin K antagonist treatment: a nested case-control study, J Thromb Haemost, vol. 14, pp. 1374-83, 2016.
M. Bloechliger, Ceschi, A., Ruegg, S., Kupferschmidt, H., Kraehenbuehl, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Risk of Seizures Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Follow-up Study with a Nested Case-Control Analysis Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Drug Saf, vol. 39, pp. 307-21, 2016.
D. G. Santos, Haguinet, F., Cohet, C., Webb, D., Logie, J., Ferreira, G. L., Rosillon, D., and Shinde, V., Risk of solid organ transplant rejection following vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in England: A self-controlled case-series, Vaccine, vol. 34, pp. 3598-606, 2016.
D. J. Humes, Walker, A. J., Hunt, B. J., Sultan, A. A., Ludvigsson, J. F., and West, J., Risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism following emergency appendicectomy in adults, Br J Surg, vol. 103, pp. 443-50, 2016.
A. J. Walker, Baldwin, D. R., Card, T. R., Powell, H. A., Hubbard, R. B., and Grainge, M. J., Risk of venous thromboembolism in people with lung cancer: a cohort study using linked UK healthcare data, Br J Cancer, vol. 115, pp. 115-21, 2016.
S. Bours, de Vries, F., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Lalmohamed, A., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G. M., Geusens, P. P. P., Drent, M., and Harvey, N. C., Risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based cohort, Osteoporos Int, vol. 27, pp. 1603-1610, 2016.
J. Spoendlin, Karatas, G., Furlano, R. I., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Rosacea in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: A Population-based Case-control Study, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 22, pp. 680-7, 2016.
L. Li, Hagberg, K. W., Peng, M., Shah, K., Paris, M., and Jick, S., Rates of Cardiovascular Disease and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Compared to Patients Without Psoriatic Arthritis, J Clin Rheumatol, vol. 21, pp. 405-10, 2015.
J. C. Robson, Kiran, A., Maskell, J., Hutchings, A., Arden, N., Dasgupta, B., Hamilton, W., Emin, A., Culliford, D., and Luqmani, R. A., The relative risk of aortic aneurysm in patients with giant cell arteritis compared with the general population of the UK, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 129-35, 2015.
J. P. Yska, van Roon, E. N., de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G., Wilffert, B., de Heide, L. J., de Vries, F., and Lalmohamed, A., Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients After Different Types of Bariatric Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study in the United Kingdom, JAMA Surg, vol. 150, pp. 1126-33, 2015.
Y. S. Punekar, Wurst, K., and Shukla, A., Resource Use and Costs up to Two Years Post Diagnosis Among Newly Diagnosed COPD Patients in the UK Primary Care Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 12, pp. 267-75, 2015.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 661-7, 2015.
E. R. Millett, De Stavola, B. L., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk factors for hospital admission in the 28 days following a community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in older adults, and their contribution to increasing hospitalisation rates over time: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008737, 2015.
F. Zingone, Sultan, A. A., Humes, D. J., and West, J., Risk of acute appendicitis in and around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study from England, Ann Surg, vol. 261, pp. 332-7, 2015.
M. E. Goossens, Zeegers, M. P., Bazelier, M. T., De Bruin, M. L., Buntinx, F., and de Vries, F., Risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007470, 2015.
P. J. Peeters, Bazelier, M. T., Leufkens, H. G., de Vries, F., and De Bruin, M. L., The risk of colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with treatment stage and obesity, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 495-502, 2015.
H. Close, Mason, J. M., Wilson, D. W., Hungin, A. P., Jones, R., and Rubin, G., Risk of Ischaemic Heart Disease in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Cohort Study Using the General Practice Research Database, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0139745, 2015.
A. Arana, Johannes, C. B., McQuay, L. J., Varas-Lorenzo, C., Fife, D., and Rothman, K. J., Risk of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death in Users of Domperidone, Proton Pump Inhibitors, or Metoclopramide: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study, Drug Saf, vol. 38, pp. 1187-99, 2015.
G. Bouras, Burns, E. M., Howell, A. M., Bottle, A., Athanasiou, T., and Darzi, A., Risk of Post-Discharge Venous Thromboembolism and Associated Mortality in General Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using Linked Hospital and Primary Care Data in England, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0145759, 2015.
L. Baril, Rosillon, D., Willame, C., Angelo, M. G., Zima, J., van den Bosch, J. H., Van Staa, T., Boggon, R., Bunge, E. M., Hernandez-Diaz, S., and Chambers, C. D., Risk of spontaneous abortion and other pregnancy outcomes in 15-25 year old women exposed to human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in the United Kingdom, Vaccine, vol. 33, pp. 6884-91, 2015.
D. J. Humes, Nordenskjold, A., Walker, A. J., West, J., and Ludvigsson, J. F., Risk of venous thromboembolism in children after general surgery, J Pediatr Surg, vol. 50, pp. 1870-3, 2015.
J. M. Khalid, Raluy-Callado, M., Curtis, B. H., Boye, K. S., Maguire, A., and Reaney, M., Rates and risk of hospitalisation among patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database linked to English Hospital Episode Statistics, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 68, pp. 40-8, 2014.
A. Moore, Harnden, A., and Mayon-White, R., Recognising Kawasaki disease in UK primary care: a descriptive study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 64, pp. e477-83, 2014.
A. B. Wilson, Neogi, T., Prout, M., and Jick, S., Relative risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with autoimmune disorders in the General Practice Research Database, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 38, pp. 544-9, 2014.
H. Close, Reilly, J., Mason, J. M., Kripalani, M., Wilson, D., Main, J., and Hungin, A. P., Renal failure in lithium-treated bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e90169, 2014.
K. E. Wurst, Shukla, A., Muellerova, H., and Davis, K. J., Respiratory pharmacotherapy use in patients newly diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a primary care setting in the UK: a retrospective cohort study, Copd, vol. 11, pp. 521-30, 2014.
L. M. Mundy, Sampson, T., and Logie, J. W., Retapamulin prescriptions and monitored off-label use, Paediatr Drugs, vol. 16, pp. 331-6, 2014.
D. Lambrelli, Burge, R., Raluy-Callado, M., Chen, S. Y., Wu, N., and Schoenfeld, M. J., Retrospective database study to assess the economic impact of hip fracture in the United Kingdom, J Med Econ, vol. 17, pp. 817-25, 2014.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]