Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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M. C. Gulliford, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Charlton, J., and Dregan, A., Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study), Trials, vol. 15, p. 220, 2014.
C. L. Morgan, Mukherjee, J., Jenkins-Jones, S., Holden, S. E., and Currie, C. J., Combination therapy with metformin plus sulphonylureas versus metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors: association with major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 977-83, 2014.
S. Toovey, Nieforth, K., Smith, P., Schlagenhauf, P., Adamcova, M., Tatt, I., Tomianovic, D., and Schnetzler, G., Comparative benefit of malaria chemoprophylaxis modelled in United Kingdom travellers, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 726-32, 2014.
R. D. Neal, Din, N. U., Hamilton, W., Ukoumunne, O. C., Carter, B., Stapley, S., and Rubin, G., Comparison of cancer diagnostic intervals before and after implementation of NICE guidelines: analysis of data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 110, pp. 584-92, 2014.
L. Hassan, Senior, J., Frisher, M., Edge, D., and Shaw, J., A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 28, pp. 357-62, 2014.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
J. P. Fournier, Duijnhoven, R. G., Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Klungel, O. H., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of statins and hormone therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women: a population-based case-control study, Menopause, vol. 21, pp. 1023-6, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Dregan, A., Moore, M. V., Ashworth, M., Staa, T., McCann, G., Charlton, J., Yardley, L., Little, P., and McDermott, L., Continued high rates of antibiotic prescribing to adults with respiratory tract infection: survey of 568 UK general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e006245, 2014.
Y. S. Punekar, Shukla, A., and Mullerova, H., COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 9, pp. 65-73, 2014.
M. C. Gulliford, Bhattarai, N., Charlton, J., and Rudisill, C., Cost-effectiveness of a universal strategy of brief dietary intervention for primary prevention in primary care: population-based cohort study and Markov model, Cost Eff Resour Alloc, vol. 12, p. 4, 2014.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Cancer diagnosed by emergency admission in England: an observational study using the general practice research database, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 13, p. 308, 2013.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Chapman, M., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T. A., and Richards, M. A., Cancer recording and mortality in the General Practice Research Database and linked cancer registries, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 22, pp. 168-75, 2013.
C. Becker, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., Case-control analysis on metformin and cancer of the esophagus, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 1763-70, 2013.
M. Solaymani-Dodaran, Card, T. R., and West, J., Cause-specific mortality of people with Barrett's esophagus compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1375-83, 1383.e1, 2013.
E. Shephard, Neal, R., Rose, P., Walter, F., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care: a case-control study using primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e250-5, 2013.
K. Khunti, Wolden, M. L., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., and Davies, M. J., Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 3411-7, 2013.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C. S., Colorectal cancer risk reduction following macrogol exposure: a cohort and nested case control study in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e83203, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., Comorbidities affect risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1384-93, 1393.e1-2; quiz e18-9, 2013.
S. L. Brilleman and Salisbury, C., Comparing measures of multimorbidity to predict outcomes in primary care: a cross sectional study, Fam Pract, vol. 30, pp. 172-8, 2013.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Simon, T., Renoux, C., and Suissa, S., The concurrent use of antithrombotic therapies and the risk of bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, Thromb Haemost, vol. 109, pp. 431-9, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. e8525, 2013.
R. J. Pitman, Nagy, L. D., and Sculpher, M. J., Cost-effectiveness of childhood influenza vaccination in England and Wales: Results from a dynamic transmission model, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 927-42, 2013.
J. Hong, Reed, C., Novick, D., and Happich, M., Costs associated with treatment of chronic low back pain: an analysis of the UK General Practice Research Database, Spine (Phila Pa 1976), vol. 38, pp. 75-82, 2013.
N. M. Davies, Smith, G. D., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal tract complications and myocardial infarction: an instrumental variable analysis, Epidemiology, vol. 24, pp. 352-62, 2013.
G. Singh, Bell, G. S., Driever, P. H., and Sander, J. W., Cancer risk in people with epilepsy using valproate-sodium, Acta Neurol Scand, vol. 125, pp. 234-40, 2012.
A. Lalmohamed, Bazelier, M. T., van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Leufkens, H. G., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., Causes of death in patients with multiple sclerosis and matched referent subjects: a population-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 19, pp. 1007-14, 2012.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
E. A. Shephard, Stapley, S., Neal, R. D., Rose, P., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bladder cancer in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e598-604, 2012.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
A. Bakhai, Rigney, U., Hollis, S., and Emmas, C., Co-administration of statins with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in a UK primary care population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 485-93, 2012.
N. Bhattarai, Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Coding, recording and incidence of different forms of coronary heart disease in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e29776, 2012.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C., Colorectal cancer incidence on the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 775-783, 2012.
N. M. Hawkins, Scholes, S., Bajekal, M., Love, H., O'Flaherty, M., Raine, R., and Capewell, S., Community care in England: reducing socioeconomic inequalities in heart failure, Circulation, vol. 126, pp. 1050-7, 2012.
H. Li, Hodgson, E., Watson, L., Shukla, A., and Nelson, J. J., Comorbidities and Concomitant Medication Use in Men with Prostate Cancer or High Levels of PSA Compared to Matched Controls: A GPRD Analysis, J Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 2012, p. 291704, 2012.
D. C. Perry, Bruce, C. E., Pope, D., Dangerfield, P., Platt, M. J., and Hall, A. J., Comorbidities in Perthes' disease: a case control study using the General Practice Research database, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 94, pp. 1684-9, 2012.
H. Jick, Wilson, A., Wiggins, P., and Chamberlain, D. P., Comparison of prescription drug costs in the United States and the United Kingdom, part 2: proton pump inhibitors, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, pp. 489-92, 2012.
M. C. Kulik, Nusselder, W. J., Boshuizen, H. C., Lhachimi, S. K., Fernandez, E., Baili, P., Bennett, K., Mackenbach, J. P., and Smit, H. A., Comparison of tobacco control scenarios: quantifying estimates of long-term health impact using the DYNAMO-HIA modeling tool, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e32363, 2012.
R. Boggon, Eaton, S., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Gabriel, H., Minhas, I., and van Staa, T. P., Current prescribing of statins and persistence to statins following ACS in the UK: a MINAP/GPRD study, Br J Cardiol, vol. 19, p. 24, 2012.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Maskell, J., Judge, A., Nevitt, M., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Changes in hip fracture rate before and after total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 70, pp. 134-8, 2011.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., Dregan, A., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Grieve, A. P., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Cluster randomised trial in the General Practice Research Database: 1. Electronic decision support to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Trials, vol. 12, p. 115, 2011.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., Ray, S., and de Vries, C. S., Comparing the General Practice Research Database and the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register as tools for postmarketing teratogen surveillance: anticonvulsants and the risk of major congenital malformations, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 157-71, 2011.
T. P. van Staa, Setakis, E., Di Tanna, G. L., Lane, D. A., and Lip, G. Y., A comparison of risk stratification schemes for stroke in 79,884 atrial fibrillation patients in general practice, J Thromb Haemost, vol. 9, pp. 39-48, 2011.
L. Parkin, Hagberg, K. W., and Jick, H., Comprehensive comparison of drug prescribing in the United States and United Kingdom, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 31, pp. 623-9, 2011.
D. J. Humes, Fleming, K. M., Spiller, R. C., and West, J., Concurrent drug use and the risk of perforated colonic diverticular disease: a population-based case-control study, Gut, vol. 60, pp. 219-24, 2011.
L. Azoulay, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., Fort, G. G. du, and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of tamoxifen with CYP2D6 inhibitors and the risk of breast cancer recurrence, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 126, pp. 695-703, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]