Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,300 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 November 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 192 pages)


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J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Ashworth, J., Hayward, R. A., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Risk of adverse events in patients prescribed long-term opioids: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Pain, 2019.
J. V. Been, Szatkowski, L., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G., van Schayck, O. C., Sheikh, A., de Vries, F., and Souverein, P., Smoke-free legislation and the incidence of paediatric respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma: interrupted time series analyses in the four UK nations, Sci Rep, vol. 5, p. 15246, 2015.
S. Bellass, Taylor, J., Han, L., Prady, S. L., Shiers, D., Jacobs, R., Holt, R. I. G., Radford, J., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Doran, T., Alderson, S. L., and Siddiqi, N., Exploring Severe Mental Illness and Diabetes: Protocol for a Longitudinal, Observational, and Qualitative Mixed Methods Study, JMIR Res Protoc, vol. 8, p. 13407, 2019.
D. Bennett, Hodgson, M. E., Shukla, A., and Logie, J. W., Prevalence of diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia in the United Kingdom, Adv Ther, vol. 28, pp. 1096-104, 2011.
L. Bensimon, Yin, H., Suissa, S., Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., Type 2 diabetes and the risk of mortality among patients with prostate cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 329-38, 2014.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
J. A. Lopez Bernal, Upton, M. N., Henderson, A. J., Dedman, D., McCarthy, A., G. Smith, D., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., Lower respiratory tract infection in the first year of life is associated with worse lung function in adult life: prospective results from the Barry Caerphilly Growth study, Ann Epidemiol, vol. 23, pp. 422-7, 2013.
E. R. Berni, Jones, B. I., Berni, T. R., Whitehouse, J., Hudson, M., Orr, J., Conway, P., Amlani, B., and Currie, C. J., The Model of Mortality with Incident Cirrhosis (MoMIC) and the model of Long-term Outlook of Mortality in Cirrhosis (LOMiC), PLoS One, vol. 14, p. e0223253, 2019.
T. R. Berni, Morgan, C. L., Berni, E. R., and Rees, D. A., Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Adverse Mental Health and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 103, pp. 2116-2125, 2018.
E. Berni, Butler, C. C., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Ouwens, M., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1023-32, 2016.
E. Berni, Scott, L. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Rocha, M. S., Butler, C. C., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991-2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study, Antibiotics (Basel), vol. 5, 2016.
E. Berni, de Voogd, H., Halcox, J. P., Butler, C. C., Bannister, C. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., Jones, B., Ouwens, M., and Currie, C. J., Risk of cardiovascular events, arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin versus alternative antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013398, 2017.
M. O. Bernier, Mikaeloff, Y., Hudson, M., and Suissa, S., Combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 61, pp. 476-81, 2009.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Forbes, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults, Lancet, vol. 384, pp. 755-65, 2014.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
K. Bhaskaran, Forbes, H. J., Douglas, I., Leon, D. A., and Smeeth, L., Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003389, 2013.
K. Bhaskaran, dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., Douglas, I. J., and Smeeth, L., Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 6, pp. 944-953, 2018.
N. Bhattarai, Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Coding, recording and incidence of different forms of coronary heart disease in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e29776, 2012.
F. A. Bietry, Hug, B., Reich, O., Susan, J. S., and Meier, C. R., Iron supplementation in Switzerland - A bi-national, descriptive and observational study, Swiss Med Wkly, vol. 147, p. w14444, 2017.
J. Birks, Bankhead, C., Holt, T. A., Fuller, A., and Patnick, J., Evaluation of a prediction model for colorectal cancer: retrospective analysis of 2.5 million patient records, Cancer Med, vol. 6, pp. 2453-2460, 2017.
R. J. Black, Joseph, R. M., Brown, B., Movahedi, M., Lunt, M., and Dixon, W. G., Half of U.K. patients with rheumatoid arthritis are prescribed oral glucocorticoid therapy in primary care: a retrospective drug utilisation study, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 17, p. 375, 2015.
C. Black and Jick, H., Etiology and frequency of rhabdomyolysis, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 22, pp. 1524-6, 2002.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 53, pp. 637-40, 2002.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 325, pp. 419-21, 2002.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 55, pp. 107-11, 2003.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Cesarean delivery in the United Kingdom: time trends in the general practice research database, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 106, pp. 151-5, 2005.
S. C. Blackburn, Oliart, A. D., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, and S. Gutthann, P., Antiepileptics and blood dyscrasias: a cohort study, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 18, pp. 1277-83, 1998.
M. Blagojevic-Bucknall, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hayward, R., West, S., Choi, H., and Roddy, E., The risk of gout among patients with sleep apnea: a matched cohort study, Arthritis Rheumatol, 2018.
B. T. Blak, Rigney, U., Sternhufvud, C., Davis, J., and Hammar, N., Weight change and healthcare resource use in English patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating a new diabetes medication class, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 70, pp. 45-55, 2016.
A. Ble, Masoli, J. A., Barry, H. E., Winder, R. E., Tavakoly, B., Henley, W. E., Kuchel, G. A., Valderas, J. M., Melzer, D., and Richards, S. H., Any versus long-term prescribing of high risk medications in older people using 2012 Beers Criteria: results from three cross-sectional samples of primary care records for 2003/4, 2007/8 and 2011/12, BMC Geriatr, vol. 15, p. 146, 2015.
A. Ble, Hughes, P. M., Delgado, J., Masoli, J. A., Bowman, K., Zirk-Sadowski, J., Mota, R. E. Mujica, Henley, W. E., and Melzer, D., Safety and Effectiveness of Statins for Prevention of Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in 12 156 Typical Older Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 72, pp. 243-250, 2017.
M. Bloechliger, Reinau, D., Spoendlin, J., Chang, S. C., Kuhlbusch, K., Heaney, L. G., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Adverse events profile of oral corticosteroids among asthma patients in the UK: cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 75, 2018.
M. Bloechliger, Ruegg, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Antipsychotic drug use and the risk of seizures: follow-up study with a nested case-control analysis, CNS Drugs, vol. 29, pp. 591-603, 2015.
M. Bloechliger, Schlagenhauf, P., Toovey, S., Schnetzler, G., Tatt, I., Tomianovic, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Malaria chemoprophylaxis regimens: a descriptive drug utilization study, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 718-25, 2014.
M. Bloechliger, Ceschi, A., Ruegg, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Lifestyle factors, psychiatric and neurologic comorbidities, and drug use associated with incident seizures among adult patients with depression: a population-based nested case-control study, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 1113-1122, 2016.
M. Bloechliger, Ceschi, A., Ruegg, S., Kupferschmidt, H., Kraehenbuehl, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Risk of Seizures Associated with Antidepressant Use in Patients with Depressive Disorder: Follow-up Study with a Nested Case-Control Analysis Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Drug Saf, vol. 39, pp. 307-21, 2016.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Walker, S., and Quint, J. K., Inadequate specialist care referrals for high-risk asthma patients in the UK: an adult population-based cohort 2006-2017, J Asthma, pp. 1-7, 2019.
W. A. Blumentals, Brown, R. R., and Gomez-Caminero, A., Antihypertensive treatment and erectile dysfunction in a cohort of type II diabetes patients, Int J Impot Res, vol. 15, pp. 314-7, 2003.
W. A. Blumentals, Nevitt, A., Peng, M. M., and Toovey, S., Body mass index and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia in a UK primary care cohort, Influenza Other Respir Viruses, vol. 6, pp. 28-36, 2012.
M. Bodmer, Brauchli, Y. B., Krahenbuhl, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Statin use and risk of gallstone disease followed by cholecystectomy, Jama, vol. 302, pp. 2001-7, 2009.
M. Bodmer, Meier, C., Krahenbuhl, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Long-term metformin use is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, Diabetes Care, vol. 33, pp. 1304-8, 2010.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of metformin and the risk of ovarian cancer: a case-control analysis, Gynecol Oncol, vol. 123, pp. 200-4, 2011.
M. Bodmer, Brauchli, Y. B., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Diabetes mellitus and the risk of cholecystectomy, Dig Liver Dis, vol. 43, pp. 742-7, 2011.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Metformin does not alter the risk of lung cancer: a case-control analysis, Lung Cancer, vol. 78, pp. 133-7, 2012.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of antidiabetic agents and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control analysis, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 107, pp. 620-6, 2012.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of metformin is not associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control analysis, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, vol. 21, pp. 280-6, 2012.
A. G. Boef, Souverein, P. C., Vandenbroucke, J. P., A. Vlieg, vanHylckama, de Boer, A., le Cessie, S., and Dekkers, O. M., Instrumental variable analysis as a complementary analysis in studies of adverse effects: venous thromboembolism and second-generation versus third-generation oral contraceptives, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 317-24, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 4 November 2019]