Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 218 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2683 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
A. Sarmanova, Doherty, M., Kuo, C., Wei, J., Abhishek, A., Mallen, C., Zeng, C., Wang, Y., Lei, G., and Zhang, W., Statin use and risk of joint replacement due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity-score matched longitudinal cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Creese, H., Bottle, A., and Pollok, R. C. G., Stoma formation in Crohn's Disease and the likelihood of antidepressant use: a population-based cohort study, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
S. C. Mendonca, Saunders, C. L., Lund, J., Mant, J., and Edwards, D., Temporal trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in primary care records: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e042518, 2020.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
M. Jani, B. Yimer, B., Sheppard, T., Lunt, M., and Dixon, W. G., Time trends and prescribing patterns of opioid drugs in UK primary care patients with non-cancer pain: A retrospective cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003270, 2020.
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M., and Azoulay, L., Trends in acid suppressant drug prescriptions in primary care in the UK: a population-based cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e041529, 2020.
J. Ruzangi, Blair, M., Cecil, E., Greenfield, G., Bottle, A., Hargreaves, D. S., and Saxena, S., Trends in healthcare use in children aged less than 15 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033761, 2020.
S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
H. T. Ayele, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Platt, R. W., Cabaussel, J., Benayoun, S., and Filion, K. B., Trends in the pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the UK from 1998 to 2016: a population-based cohort study, World J Urol, 2020.
S. Price, Spencer, A., Zhang, X., Ball, S., Lyratzopoulos, G., Mujica-Mota, R., Stapley, S., Ukoumunne, O. C., and Hamilton, W., Trends in time to cancer diagnosis around the period of changing national guidance on referral of symptomatic patients: A serial cross-sectional study using UK electronic healthcare records from 2006-17, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 69, p. 101805, 2020.
A. Hart, Ng, S. C., Watkins, J., Paridaens, K., Edwards, J. O., Fullarton, J. R., Sonderegger, Y. L. Y., Ghatnekar, O., and Ghosh, S., The use of 5-aminosalicylates in Crohn's disease: a retrospective study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Gastroenterol, vol. 33, pp. 500-507, 2020.
R. Denholm, van der Werf, E. T., and Hay, A. D., Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study, Respir Res, vol. 21, p. 4, 2020.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Use of hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3873, 2020.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., Pottegard, A., Nirantharakumar, K., and Azoulay, L., Use of Hydrochlorothiazide and Risk of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer, Drug Saf, 2020.
N. C. C. Werkman, Nielen, J. T. H., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Ejskjaer, N., Røikjer, J., Schaper, N. C., Rossi, B., Klungel, O., Vestergaard, P., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., Use of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2-Inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) and Risk of Lower Limb Amputation, Curr Drug Saf, 2020.
A. Arana, Margulis, A. V., Varas-Lorenzo, C., Bui, C. L., Gilsenan, A., McQuay, L. J., Reynolds, M., Rebordosa, C., Franks, B., de Vogel, S., Appenteng, K., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Validation of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in the United Kingdom, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Validation study of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris recording in routinely collected electronic primary healthcare records in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035934, 2020.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M., Itani, T., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., Varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Health Technol Assess, vol. 24, pp. 1-46, 2020.
M. Giustozzi, Curcio, A., Weijs, B., Field, T. S., Sudikas, S., Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., Weitz, J. I., Martinez, C., and Cohen, A. T., Variation in the Association between Antineoplastic Therapies and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Active Cancer, Thromb Haemost, vol. 120, pp. 847-856, 2020.
C. Santella, Yin, H., Hicks, B. M., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Weight-lowering effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and detection of breast cancer among obese women with diabetes, Epidemiology, 2020.
H. Strongman, Williams, R., and Bhaskaran, K., What are the implications of using individual and combined sources of routinely collected data to identify and characterise incident site-specific cancers? a concordance and validation study using linked English electronic health records data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e037719, 2020.
J. S. Minhas, Coles, B., Mistri, A. K., Eveson, D. J., Hussain, S. T., Potter, J. F., Khunti, K., and Robinson, T. G., What is the optimal blood pressure level for patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants?, J Hypertens, 2020.
W. D. Strain, Tsang, C., Hurst, M., McEwan, P., Unadkat, M., Meadowcroft, S., Shardlow, R., and Evans, M., What Next After Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes? Selecting the Right Drug for the Right Patient, Diabetes Ther, vol. 11, pp. 1381-1395, 2020.
C. A. Lawson, Zaccardi, F., Squire, I., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Mamas, M. A., Khunti, K., and Kadam, U. T., 20-year trends in cause-specific heart failure outcomes by sex, socioeconomic status, and place of diagnosis: a population-based study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 4, pp. e406-e420, 2019.
A. M. Gallagher, Dedman, D., Padmanabhan, S., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., The accuracy of date of death recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database in England compared with the Office for National Statistics death registrations, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., ACE inhibitor use and risk of cataract: a case-control analysis, Br J Ophthalmol, 2019.
J. Watson, Salisbury, C., Whiting, P., Banks, J., Pyne, Y., and Hamilton, W., Added value and cascade effects of inflammatory marker tests in UK primary care: a cohort study from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e470-e478, 2019.
K. D. Johnson, Lu, X., and Zhang, D., Adherence to hepatitis A and hepatitis B multi-dose vaccination schedules among adults in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Public Health, vol. 19, p. 404, 2019.
R. L. Tannen, Barnhart, K. T., and Rubin, J. C., Advantages of large medical record database for outcomes research: Insights into post-menopausal hormone therapy, Learn Health Syst, vol. 3, p. e10193, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Allergic disease, corticosteroid use and risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A UK Nationwide case-control study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Santella, C., Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
M. Nowakowska, Van Staa, T., Molter, A., Ashcroft, D. M., Tsang, J. Y., White, A., Welfare, W., and Palin, V., Antibiotic choice in UK general practice: rates and drivers of potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
O. van Hecke, Fuller, A., Bankhead, C., Jenkins-Jones, S., Francis, N., Moore, M., Butler, C., and Wang, K., Antibiotic exposure and 'response failure' for subsequent respiratory tract infections: an observational cohort study of UK preschool children in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e638-e646, 2019.
M. Gharbi, Drysdale, J. H., Lishman, H., Goudie, R., Molokhia, M., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A. H., and Aylin, P., Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l525, 2019.
P. Rockenschaub, Hayward, A., and Shallcross, L., Antibiotic prescribing before and after the diagnosis of comorbidity: a cohort study using primary care electronic health records, Clin Infect Dis, 2019.
V. Palin, Molter, A., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., White, A., Welfare, W., and Van Staa, T., Antibiotic prescribing for common infections in UK general practice: variability and drivers, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2019.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 48, pp. 228-234, 2019.
N. S. Nagra, Robinson, D. E., Douglas, I., Delmestri, A., Dakin, S. G., Snelling, S. J. B., Carr, A. J., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Antibiotic treatment and flares of rheumatoid arthritis: a self-controlled case series study analysis using CPRD GOLD, Sci Rep, vol. 9, p. 8941, 2019.
C. Hopkins, Williamson, E., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Little, P., Lund, V. J., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Carpenter, J., and Denaxas, S., Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hider, S., Scott, I., Helliwell, T., and Hall, L. J., Antibiotic use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 154, 2019.
F. S. Troelsen and Jick, S., Antibiotic Use in Childhood and Adolescence and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Martin-Perez, M., Vora, P., Roberts, L., Balabanova, Y., Brobert, G., Fatoba, S., Suzart-Woischnik, K., Schaefer, B., and Ruigomez, A., Appropriateness of initial dose of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031341, 2019.
R. Hoile, Tabet, N., Smith, H., Bremner, S., Cassell, J., and Ford, E., Are symptoms of insomnia in primary care associated with subsequent onset of dementia? A matched retrospective case-control study, Aging Ment Health, pp. 1-6, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 5 January 2021]