Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 April 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF March 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 313 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB April 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Risk-stratified monitoring for thiopurine toxicity in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: prognostic model development, validation, and, health economic evaluation


Authors: G. Nakafero, T. Card, M. Grainge, H. Williams, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, D. van der Windt, M. Stevenson, R. Riley, A. Abhishek


Association between weight loss and health care resource utilization in adults living with obesity: Evidence from a UK primary care database


Authors: C. Bojke, S. Capucci, C. Haase, N. Hartvig, Sommer Matthiessen, C. Morgen, A. Rendon, J. Pearson-Stuttard


Flexible parametric methods for calculating life expectancy in small populations


Authors: F. Tyrer, Y. Chudasama, P. Lambert, M. Rutherford


Real world safety of methoxyflurane analgesia in the emergency setting: a comparative hybrid prospective-retrospective post-authorisation safety study


Authors: N. Qizilbash, H. Kataria, H. Jarman, B. Bloom, M. Bradney, M. Oh, S. Yee, A. Roncero, I. Méndez, S. Pocock


Changes to healthcare utilisation and symptoms for common mental health problems over the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic: parallel analyses of electronic health records and survey data in England


Authors: V. Taxiarchi, M. Senior, D. Ashcroft, M. Carr, H. Hope, M. Hotopf, E. Kontopantelis, S. McManus, P. Patalay, S. Steeg, R. Webb, K. Abel, M. Pierce


Liver function tests in patients with hypertension in primary care: prospective cohort study


Authors: Al Harthi, P. Whiting, J. Watson


Acute Cardiovascular Events After COVID-19 in England in 2020: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study


Authors: J. Davidson, A. Banerjee, H. Strongman, E. Herrett, L. Smeeth, J. Breuer, C. Warren-Gash


The risk of acute kidney injury in colorectal cancer survivors: an english population-based matched cohort study


Authors: K. Andresen, H. Carreira, H. Strongman, H. McDonald, S. Benitez-Majano, K. Mansfield, D. Nitsch, L. Tomlinson, K. Bhaskaran


Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid maintenance treatment in young people with ulcerative colitis: a retrospective cohort study in primary care


Authors: N. Jayasooriya, R. Pollok, J. Blackwell, A. Bottle, I. Petersen, H. Creese, S. Saxena


Ethnic inequalities in age-related patterns of multiple long-term conditions in England: Analysis of primary care and nationally representative survey data


Authors: B. Hayanga, M. Stafford, C. Saunders, L. Bécares


Common Cancer Types and Risk of Stroke and Bleeding in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Study in England


Authors: A. Ajabnoor, R. Parisi, S. Zghebi, D. Ashcroft, C. Faivre-Finn, C. Morris, M. Mamas, E. Kontopantelis


Incidence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases following COVID-19: a matched cohort study in UK primary care


Authors: U. Syed, A. Subramanian, D. Wraith, J. Lord, K. McGee, K. Ghokale, K. Nirantharakumar, S. Haroon


Alternative cascade-testing protocols for identifying and managing patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia: systematic reviews, qualitative study and cost-effectiveness analysis


Authors: N. Qureshi, B. Woods, Neves de Faria, Saramago Goncalves, E. Cox, Leonardi Bee, L. Condon, S. Weng, R. Akyea, B. Iyen, P. Roderick, S. Humphries, W. Rowlands, M. Watson, K. Haralambos, R. Kenny, D. Datta, Z. Miedzybrodzka, C. Byrne, J. Kai


The Clinical and Economic Burden of Antibiotic Use in Pediatric Patients with Varicella Infection: a Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Real-World Data in England


Authors: S. Kujawski, V. Banks, C. Casey, S. Drysdale, A. Patel, O. Massey, T. Holbrook, M. Pawaskar


Long-term healthcare utilization and costs of babies bornafter assisted reproductive technologies (ART): a record linkage study with 10-years' follow-up in England


Authors: X. Hua, O. Rivero-Arias, M. Quigley, J. Kurinczuk, C. Carson


Prevalence of Poorly Controlled Asthma and Factors Associated with Specialist Referral in Those with Poorly Controlled Asthma in a Paediatric Asthma Population


Authors: C. Kallis, A. Morgan, L. Fleming, J. Quint


Detection and evaluation of signals associated with exposure to individual and combination of medications in pregnancy: a signal detection study protocol


Authors: A. Subramanian, S. Lee, S. Sudasinghe, S. Wambua, K. Phillips, M. Singh, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, N. Cockburn, J. Wang, A. Fagbamigbe, M. Usman, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, L. Kent, C. McCowan, Reilly D, G. Santorelli, H. Hope, J. Kennedy, M. Mhereeg, K. Abel, K. Eastwood, M. Black, M. Loane, N. Moss, S. Brophy, P. Brocklehurst, H. Dolk, C. Nelson-Piercy, K. Nirantharakumar


The associations of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as add-on to metformin with fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: V. van Hulten, J. Driessen, J. Starup-Linde, Z. Al-Mashhadi, R. Viggers, O. Klungel, P. Souverein, P. Vestergaard, C. Stehouwer, J. van den Bergh


The association of herpes zoster and influenza vaccinations with the risk of developing dementia: a population-based cohort study within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: A. Lophatananon, M. Carr, B. McMillan, C. Dobson, R. Itzhaki, R. Parisi, D. Ashcroft, K. Muir


Development of an Asthma Exacerbation Risk Prediction Model for Conversational Use by Adults in England


Authors: C. Kallis, R. Calvo, B. Schuller, J. Quint


Protocol for the Paediatric Otorrhoea Study (POSt): a multi-methods study to understand the burden of paediatric otorrhoea in the UK


Authors: E. Heward, J. Dempsey, J. Lunn, J. Molloy, R. Isba, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, A. Hay, J. Nichani, I. Bruce


Dementia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: Comparing metformin with no pharmacological treatment


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, D. Kapogiannis, I. Tzoulaki, E. Riboli, L. Middleton


Detecting transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) using machine learning: an evaluation of the performance of an algorithm in a UK setting


Authors: C. Tsang, A. Huda, M. Norman, C. Dickerson, V. Leo, J. Brownrigg, M. Mamas, P. Elliott


Conversion of CPRD AURUM Data into the OMOP Common Data Model


Authors: C Mayer


Resource utilisation and outcomes of people with heart failure in England: a descriptive analysis of linked primary and secondary care data - the PULSE study


Authors: S. Linden, N. Gollop, R. Farmer


Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs Associated With COVID-19 Among Pediatrics Managed in the Community or Hospital Setting in England: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: J. Yang, K. Andersen, K. Rai, T. Tritton, T. Mugwagwa, C. Tsang, M. Reimbaeva, L. McGrath, P. Payne, B. Backhouse, D. Mendes, R. Butfield, R. Wood, J. Nguyen


Risk Factors Associated with a First Exacerbation Among Patients with COPD Classified as GOLD A and B in Routine Clinical Practice in the UK


Authors: K. Rothnie, B. Numbere, S. Gelwicks, Y. Lu, R. Sharma, C. Compton, A. Ismaila, J. Quint


Association between preterm delivery and subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK population-based retrospective cohort study


Authors: A Song, K Okoth, N Adderley


Oral anticoagulant prescribing among patients with cancer and atrial fibrillation in England, 2009-2019


Authors: A. Ajabnoor, R. Parisi, S. Zghebi, D. Ashcroft, C. Faivre-Finn, C. Morris, M. Mamas, E. Kontopantelis


Real-world study of the concomitant use of biphasic insulin as part 30/70 with GLP-1 receptor agonist versus first-generation basal insulin with GLP-1 receptor agonist in type 2 diabetes


Authors: M. Davies, A. Alibegovic, G. Anil, U. Braae, A. Jensen, R. Nordsborg


Clinical risk associated with COVID-19 among 86000 patients with congenital heart disease


Authors: S. Williams, S. Frain, H. Guo, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, B. Keavney


Symptoms and signs in patients with heart failure: association with 3-month hospitalisation and mortality


Authors: M. Ali, C. Lam, A. Strömberg, S. Hand, S. Booth, F. Zaccardi, I. Squire, G. McCann, K. Khunti, C. Lawson


Healthcare resource utilisation and costs of hospitalisation and primary care among adults with COVID-19 in England: a population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Yang, K. Andersen, K. Rai, T. Tritton, T. Mugwagwa, M. Reimbaeva, C. Tsang, L. McGrath, P. Payne, B. Backhouse, D. Mendes, R. Butfield, K. Naicker, M. Araghi, R. Wood, J. Nguyen


Risk of atrial fibrillation and association with other diseases: protocol of the derivation and international external validation of a prediction model using nationwide population-based electronic health records


Authors: R. Nadarajah, J. Wu, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, T. Benita, L. Rokach, J. Cowan, C. Gale


Correctness and Completeness of Breast Cancer Diagnoses Recorded in UK CPRD Aurum and CPRD GOLD Databases: Comparison to Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry (Companion Paper 2)


Authors: K. Hagberg, C. Vasilakis-Scaramozza, R. Persson, D. Neasham, G. Kafatos, S. Jick


Risk of Falls and Fractures in Individuals With Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, or Glaucoma


Authors: J . Y. Tsang, A. Wright, M. Carr, C. Dickinson, R. Harper, E. Kontopantelis, T. Van Staa, L. Munford, T. Blakeman, D. Ashcroft


Trends in consultations and prescribing for rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases: an electronic primary care records study


Authors: V. Welsh, K. Mason, J. Bailey, R. Bajpai, K. Jordan, C. Mallen, C. Burton


Health-care resource use among patients who use illicit opioids in England, 2010-20: A descriptive matched cohort study


Authors: N. Van Hest, T. Brothers, A. Williamson, D. Lewer


Predicting risk of endometrial cancer in asymptomatic women (PRECISION): Model development and external validation


Authors: S. Kitson, E. Crosbie, D. Evans, A. Lophatananon, K. Muir, D. Ashcroft, E. Kontopantelis, G. Martin


Clinically apparent Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease: A population-based nested case-control study


Authors: A. Douros, Z. Ante, C. Fallone, L. Azoulay, C. Renoux, S. Suissa, P. Brassard


How is nicotine vaping product (e-cigarette) use monitored in primary care electronic health records in the United Kingdom? An exploratory analysis of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: B. Tildy, A. McNeill, J. Robins, A. Dregan, S. Richardson, L. Brose


Continuity of care and consultation mode in general practice: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study using patient-level and practice-level data from before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in England


Authors: W. Parry, C. Fraser, E. Crellin, J. Hughes, E. Vestesson, G. Clarke


Exploring the impact of varying definitions of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routinely collected electronic medical records


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Temporal Risk of Non-Fatal Cardiovascular Events Post COPD Exacerbation: A Population-based Study


Authors: E. Graul, C. Nordon, K. Rhodes, J. Marshall, S. Menon, C. Kallis, A. Ioannides, H. Whittaker, N. Peters, J. Quint


The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in the United Kingdom 2013-2018: A retrospective cohort study of UK primary care data


Authors: S. Wigglesworth, A. Neligan, J. Dickson, A. Pullen, E. Yelland, T. Anjuman, M. Reuber


Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a population with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with and without type 2 diabetes: a UK database analysis using the CPRD


Authors: C. Morgan, A. Durand, T. McCormack, E. Hughes, T. Berni, R. Lahoz


Outcomes of first emergency admissions for alcohol-related liver disease in England over a 10-year period: retrospective observational cohort study using linked electronic databases


Authors: K. Bodger, T. Mair, P. Schofield, B. Silberberg, S. Hood, K. Fleming


The cost of primary care consultations associated with long COVID in non-hospitalised adults: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Tufts, N. Guan, D. Zemedikun, A. Subramanian, K. Gokhale, P. Myles, T. Williams, T. Marshall, M. Calvert, K. Matthews, K. Nirantharakumar, L. Jackson, S. Haroon


Use of healthcare services before diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based matched case-control study


Authors: V. Prasad, E. Rezel-Potts, P. White, J. Downs, N. Boddy, K. Sayal, E. Sonuga-Barke


Imminent fall risk after fracture


Authors: M. Schene, C. Wyers, A. Driessen, P. Souverein, M. Gemmeke, J. van den Bergh, H. Willems