Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,400 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 197 pages)


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Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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A. Majeed, Moser, K., and Carroll, K., Trends in the prevalence and management of atrial fibrillation in general practice in England and Wales, 1994-1998: analysis of data from the general practice research database, Heart, vol. 86, pp. 284-8, 2001.
C. L. Burton, Chen, Y., Chesterton, L. S., and van der Windt, D. A., Trends in the prevalence, incidence and surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome between 1993 and 2013: an observational analysis of UK primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020166, 2018.
C. Martinez, Jones, R. W., and Rietbrock, S., Trends in the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias including those treated with antidementia drugs in the community in the UK: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
K. Bailey, Ellis, C., and Majeed, A., Trends in the treatment of osteoporosis and types of drug treatments prescribed in general practice in England and Wales, 1994 to 1998, Health Stat Q, pp. 5-13, 2002.
A. K. Imkampe and Gulliford, M. C., Trends in Type 1 diabetes incidence in the UK in 0- to 14-year-olds and in 15- to 34-year-olds, 1991-2008, Diabet Med, vol. 28, pp. 811-4, 2011.
A. J. Walker, Card, T., Bates, T. E., and Muir, K., Tricyclic antidepressants and the incidence of certain cancers: a study using the GPRD, Br J Cancer, vol. 104, pp. 193-7, 2011.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
G. C. Hall, Brown, M. M., Mo, J., and MacRae, K. D., Triptans in migraine: the risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death in practice, Neurology, vol. 62, pp. 563-8, 2004.
P. N. Taylor, Minassian, C., Rehman, A., Iqbal, A., Draman, M. S., Hamilton, W., Dunlop, D., Robinson, A., Vaidya, B., Lazarus, J. H., Thomas, S., Dayan, C. M., and Okosieme, O. E., TSH levels and risk of miscarriage in women on long-term levothyroxine: a community-based study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 99, pp. 3895-902, 2014.
L. Bensimon, Yin, H., Suissa, S., Pollak, M. N., and Azoulay, L., Type 2 diabetes and the risk of mortality among patients with prostate cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 329-38, 2014.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., and Lewis, J. D., Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 3, pp. 587-94, 2005.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
N. Frey, Hugle, T., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Type II diabetes mellitus and incident osteoarthritis of the hand: a population-based case-control analysis, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 24, pp. 1535-40, 2016.
R. Lawrenson, Wyndaele, J. J., Vlachonikolis, I., Farmer, C., and Glickman, S., A UK general practice database study of prevalence and mortality of people with neural tube defects, Clin Rehabil, vol. 14, pp. 627-30, 2000.
R. Joshi, Venkatesan, S., and Myles, P. R., A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness, PeerJ, vol. 4, p. e1902, 2016.
N. M. Hawkins, Scholes, S., Bajekal, M., Love, H., O'Flaherty, M., Raine, R., and Capewell, S., The UK National Health Service: delivering equitable treatment across the spectrum of coronary disease, Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, vol. 6, pp. 208-16, 2013.
S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
S. Lee, Shafe, A. C., and Cowie, M. R., UK stroke incidence, mortality and cardiovascular risk management 1999-2008: time-trend analysis from the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 1, p. e000269, 2011.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
L. McDonald, Sammon, C. J., Samnaliev, M., and Ramagopalan, S., Under-recording of hospital bleeding events in UK primary care: a linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1155-1168, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., and Peat, G., Underrecording of osteoarthritis in United Kingdom primary care electronic health record data, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1195-1201, 2018.
N. A. Francis, Hood, K., Lyons, R., and Butler, C. C., Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 71, pp. 2037-46, 2016.
F. Ahmadizar, Souverein, P., de Boer, A., and van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, Undertreatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: long-term follow-up on time trends in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, risk factors and medications use, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 776-785, 2018.
M. A. Wallander, Johansson, S., Ruigomez, A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Unspecified abdominal pain in primary care: the role of gastrointestinal morbidity, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 61, pp. 1663-70, 2007.
T. Van Staa, Abenhaim, L., and Cooper, C., Upper gastrointestinal adverse events and cyclical etidronate, Am J Med, vol. 103, pp. 462-7, 1997.
A. Gonzalez-Perez and Rodriguez, L. A., Upper gastrointestinal complications among users of paracetamol, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, vol. 98, pp. 297-303, 2006.
W. P. Bowe, Hoffstad, O., and Margolis, D. J., Upper respiratory tract infection in household contacts of acne patients, Dermatology, vol. 215, pp. 213-8, 2007.
S. Rajaram, Steffey, A., Blak, B., Hickman, M., Christensen, H., and Caspard, H., Uptake of childhood influenza vaccine from 2012-2013 to 2014-2015 in the UK and the implications for high-risk children: a retrospective observational cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010625, 2016.
C. F. Kuo, Chou, I. J., See, L. C., Chen, J. S., Yu, K. H., Luo, S. F., Hsieh, A. H., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Urate-lowering treatment and risk of total joint replacement in patients with gout, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 2129-2139, 2018.
J. D. Orlander, Jick, S. S., Dean, A. D., and Jick, H., Urinary tract infections and estrogen use in older women, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol. 40, pp. 817-20, 1992.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0165507, 2016.
T. P. van Staa, Abenhaim, L., Cooper, C., Zhang, B., and Leufkens, H. G., The use of a large pharmacoepidemiological database to study exposure to oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures: validation of study population and results, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 9, pp. 359-66, 2000.
G. Hughes, Williams, T., Simms, I., Mercer, C., Fenton, K., and Cassell, J., Use of a primary care database to determine trends in genital chlamydia testing, diagnostic episodes and management in UK general practice, 1990-2004, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 83, pp. 310-3, 2007.
E. Hak, Mulder, B., Schuiling-Veninga, C. C., de Vries, T. W., and Jick, S. S., Use of acid-suppressive drugs in pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma: bidirectional crossover study using the general practice research database, Drug Saf, vol. 36, pp. 1097-104, 2013.
C. Rebordosa, Aguado, J., Plana, E., Thomas, S., Frances, A., Lei, A., Garcia-Gil, E., Nuevo, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Castellsague, J., Use of aclidinium did not increase the risk of death in a noninterventional cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), United Kingdom, Respir Med, vol. 152, pp. 37-43, 2019.
F. X. Lamy, Saragoussi, D., Johnson, M. E., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Jorgensen, K. T., Loze, J. Y., and Maguire, A., The use of adjunctive antipsychotics to treat depression in UK primary care, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 33, pp. 891-898, 2017.
P. C. Souverein, van Staa, T. P., Egberts, A. C., De la Rosette, J. J., Cooper, C., and Leufkens, H. G., Use of alpha-blockers and the risk of hip/femur fractures, J Intern Med, vol. 254, pp. 548-54, 2003.
M. Sharland, The use of antibacterials in children: a report of the Specialist Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance (SACAR) Paediatric Subgroup, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 60 Suppl 1, pp. i15-26, 2007.
R. Denholm, van der Werf, E. T., and Hay, A. D., Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study, Respir Res, vol. 21, p. 4, 2020.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Gonzalez-Perez, A., Use of antibiotics and risk of breast cancer, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 161, pp. 616-9, 2005.
N. Dunn, Lane, D., Everitt, H., and Little, P., Use of antibiotics for sore throat and incidence of quinsy, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 45-9, 2007.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Kezouh, A., Benisty, J., Matok, I., Mugelli, A., and Suissa, S., The use of antidepressants and the risk of chronic atrial fibrillation, J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 55, pp. 423-30, 2015.
I. Douglas, Smeeth, L., and Irvine, D., The use of antidepressants and the risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nested case control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 71, pp. 116-20, 2011.
B. D. Fox, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., Langleben, D., Lapi, F., Benisty, J., and Suissa, S., The use of antidepressants and the risk of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, Can J Cardiol, vol. 30, pp. 1633-9, 2014.
A. Alonso, Rodriguez, L. A., Logroscino, G., and Hernan, M. A., Use of antidepressants and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a prospective study, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 80, pp. 671-4, 2009.
M. Bodmer, Becker, C., Meier, C., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of antidiabetic agents and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a case-control analysis, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 107, pp. 620-6, 2012.
P. C. Souverein, Webb, D. J., Weil, J. G., van Staa, T. P., and Egberts, A. C., Use of antiepileptic drugs and risk of fractures: case-control study among patients with epilepsy, Neurology, vol. 66, pp. 1318-24, 2006.
F. Andersohn, Schade, R., Willich, S. N., and Garbe, E., Use of antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy and the risk of self-harm or suicidal behavior, Neurology, vol. 75, pp. 335-40, 2010.
C. Patch, Charlton, J., Roderick, P. J., and Gulliford, M. C., Use of antihypertensive medications and mortality of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a population-based study, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 57, pp. 856-62, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 5 February 2020]