Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 May 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF May 2024 (PDF, 3.7MB, 317 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB May 2024 (BIB, 1.8MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Year Sort ascending Title

Prediction of short-term atrial fibrillation risk using primary care electronic health records


Authors: R. Nadarajah, J. Wu, D. Hogg, K. Raveendra, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, J. Parry, C. Bates, C. Cowan, C. Gale


Identifying subtypes of chronic kidney disease with machine learning: development, internal validation and prognostic validation using linked electronic health records in 350,067 individuals


Authors: A. Dashtban, M. Mizani, L. Pasea, S. Denaxas, R. Corbett, J. Mamza, H. Gao, T. Morris, H. Hemingway, A. Banerjee


Musculoskeletal pain and its impact on prognosis following acute coronary syndrome or stroke: A linked electronic health record cohort study

Authors: K. Mason, K. Jordan, N. Heron, J. Edwards, J. Bailey, F. Achana, Y. Chen, M. Frisher, A. Huntley, C. Mallen, M. Mamas, M. Png, S. Tatton, S. White, M. Marshall


Healthcare costs associated with short-acting β(2)-agonists in asthma: observational UK SABINA study


Authors: D. Attar-Zadeh, T. Capstick, D. Leese, S. Arnetorp, E. Rapsomaniki, K. Da Costa, E. Maslova, Y. Xu, D. Gibson, J. Quint


Ethnic differences in hypertension management, medication use and blood pressure control in UK primary care, 2006-2019: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: S. Eastwood, A. Hughes, L. Tomlinson, R. Mathur, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran, N. Chaturvedi


Association between outpatient follow-up and incidence of revision after knee and hip replacements: a population-based cohort study


Authors: R. Pinedo-Villanueva, S. Kolovos, E. Burn, A. Delmestri, L. Smith, A. Judge, S. Kingsbury, M. Stone, P. Conaghan


Prescribing of Low-dose Rivaroxaban in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands


Authors: N. Hunt, R. Pajouheshnia, A. Salih, S. van Doorn, P. Souverein, M. Bazelier, O. Klungel, H. Gardarsdottir


Twenty-year trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors among people with type 2 diabetes by dementia status in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: H. Lai, K. Chang, M. Sharabiani, J. Valabhji, E. Gregg, L. Middleton, A. Majeed, J. Pearson-Stuttard, C. Millett, A. Bottle, E. Vamos


Analgesic utilization in people with knee osteoarthritis: A population-based study using primary care data


Authors: A. Taqi, S. Gran, R. Knaggs


Combined and progestagen-only hormonal contraceptives and breast cancer risk: A UK nested case-control study and meta-analysis


Authors: D. Fitzpatrick, K. Pirie, G. Reeves, J. Green, V. Beral


Characterising the burden of chronic kidney disease among people with type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: S. Cook, N. Schmedt, J. Broughton, P. Kalra, L. Tomlinson, J. Quint


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


Risk of atrial fibrillation and association with other diseases: protocol of the derivation and international external validation of a prediction model using nationwide population-based electronic health records


Authors: R. Nadarajah, J. Wu, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, T. Benita, L. Rokach, J. Cowan, C. Gale


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals to musculoskeletal services from primary care and subsequent incidence of inflammatory rheumatic musculoskeletal disease: an observational study


Authors: C. Burton, R. Bajpai, K. Mason, J. Bailey, K. Jordan, C. Mallen, V. Welsh


Evaluating the Performance of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores Compared with Standard Propensity Scores for Comparing Antihypertensive Therapies in the CPRD GOLD Database


Authors: V. Simon, J. Vadel


Developing prediction models to estimate the risk of two survival outcomes both occurring: A comparison of techniques


Authors: A. Pate, M. Sperrin, R. Riley, J. Sergeant, T. Van Staa, N. Peek, M. Mamas, G. Lip, M. O'Flaherty, I. Buchan, G. Martin


Mortality in children with epilepsy: Cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Schnier, R. Chin


Incidence, prevalence, and co-occurrence of autoimmune disorders over time and by age, sex, and socioeconomic status: a population-based cohort study of 22 million individuals in the UK


Authors: N. Conrad, S. Misra, J . Y. Verbakel, G. Verbeke, G. Molenberghs, P. Taylor, J. Mason, N. Sattar, J. McMurray, I. McInnes, K. Khunti, G. Cambridge


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Incidence and Factors associated with Mental Health Disorders in Rectal Cancer Patients Post-Restorative Proctectomy


Authors: J. Moon, R. Garfinkle, P. Zelkowitz, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Vasilevsky, P. Brassard, M. Boutros


Body mass index and survival in people with heart failure


Authors: N. Jones, J. Ordonez-Mena, A. Roalfe, K. Taylor, C. Goyder, F. Hobbs, C. Taylor


Temporal trends in eating disorder and self-harm incidence rates among adolescents and young adults in the UK in the 2 years since onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study


Authors: A. Trafford, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, C. Chew-Graham, E. Cockcroft, L. Cybulski, E. Garavini, S. Garg, T. Kabir, N. Kapur, R. Temple, R. Webb, P. Mok


Incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a UK population-based matched cohort study


Authors: C. Chalitsios, V. Baskaran, R. Harwood, W. Lim, T. McKeever


Risk stratified monitoring for methotrexate toxicity in immune mediated inflammatory diseases: prognostic model development and validation using primary care data from the UK


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, H. Williams, T. Card, M. Taal, G. Aithal, C. Fox, C. Mallen, D. van der Windt, M. Stevenson, R. Riley, A. Abhishek


All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: A. Raslan, J. Quint, S. Cook


Real-world study of ethnic differences in glycaemic control and clinical characteristics among insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes initiating biphasic insulin aspart 30/70: A retrospective, observational cohort study in England


Authors: M. Davies, A. Alibegovic, A. Jensen, R. Munikrishnappa, R. Nordsborg, U. Braae


Opicapone versus entacapone: Head-to-head retrospective data-based comparison of healthcare resource utilization in people with Parkinson's new to COMT inhibitor treatment


Authors: G. Harrison-Jones, X. Marston, F. Morgante, Ray Chaudhuri, G. Castilla-Fernández, V. Foggia


Incidence and prevalence of heart failure in England: a descriptive analysis of linked primary and secondary care data - the PULSE study


Authors: L. Bellanca, S. Linden, R. Farmer


Weight change and risk of obesity-related complications: A retrospective population-based cohort study of a UK primary care database


Authors: K. MedSci, V. Schnecke, C. Haase, N. Harder-Lauridsen, N. Rathor, K. Sommer, C. Morgen


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


An algorithm-based approach to ascertain patients with rare diseases in electronic health records using hypereosinophilic syndrome as an example


Authors: G. Requena, S. Joksaite, N. Galwey, R. Jakes


Prevalence of cancer risk factors among transgender and gender diverse individuals: a cross-sectional analysis using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Brown, R. Pfeiffer, D. Shrewsbury, S. O'Callaghan, A. Berner, S. Gadalla, M. Shiels, S. Jackson


Progression of stroke risk in patients aged <65 years diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study in general practice


Authors: S. Mendonca, D. Edwards, J. Lund, C. Saunders, J. Mant


The associations of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors as add-on to metformin with fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: V. van Hulten, J. Driessen, J. Starup-Linde, Z. Al-Mashhadi, R. Viggers, O. Klungel, P. Souverein, P. Vestergaard, C. Stehouwer, J. van den Bergh


Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in England from 2000 to 2019


Authors: P. Stone, M. Osen, A. Ellis, R. Coaker, J. Quint


Bleeding risk in patients prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy and triple therapy after coronary interventions: the ADAPTT retrospective population-based cohort studies


Authors: J. Harris, K. Pouwels, T. Johnson, J. Sterne, C. Pithara, K. Mahadevan, B. Reeves, U. Benedetto, Y. Loke, D. Lasserson, B. Doble, N. Hopewell-Kelly, S. Redwood, S. Wordsworth, A. Mumford, C. Rogers, M. Pufulete


Investigating association between inflammatory bowel disease and rotavirus vaccination in a paediatric cohort in the UK


Authors: A. Flatt, T. Inns, K. Fleming, M. Iturriza-Gomara, D. Hungerford


Changes to healthcare utilisation and symptoms for common mental health problems over the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic: parallel analyses of electronic health records and survey data in England


Authors: V. Taxiarchi, M. Senior, D. Ashcroft, M. Carr, H. Hope, M. Hotopf, E. Kontopantelis, S. McManus, P. Patalay, S. Steeg, R. Webb, K. Abel, M. Pierce


Dementia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: Comparing metformin with no pharmacological treatment


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, D. Kapogiannis, I. Tzoulaki, E. Riboli, L. Middleton


Association Between Fluoroquinolone Use and Hospitalization With Aortic Aneurysm or Aortic Dissection


Authors: J. Brown, K. Wing, C. Leyrat, S. Evans, K. Mansfield, A. Wong, L. Smeeth, N. Galwey, I. Douglas


Association of Different Prescribing Patterns for Oral Corticosteroids With Fracture Preventive Care Among Older Adults in the UK and Ontario


Authors: J. Matthewman, M. Tadrous, K. Mansfield, D. Thiruchelvam, D. Redelmeier, A. Cheung, I. Lega, D. Prieto-Alhambra, L. Cunliffe, A. Mulick, A. Henderson, S. Langan, A. Drucker


Temporal patterns in the recorded annual incidence of common mental disorders over two decades in the United Kingdom: a primary care cohort study


Authors: J. Dykxhoorn, D. Osborn, K. Walters, J. Kirkbride, S. Gnani, A. Lazzarino


Validation of the recording of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in routinely collected electronic healthcare records in England


Authors: A. Morgan, R. Gupta, P. George, J. Quint


Recent trends in asthma diagnosis, preschool wheeze diagnosis and asthma exacerbations in English children and adolescents: a SABINA Jr study


Authors: C. Kallis, E. Maslova, A. Morgan, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, R. van der Valk, J. Quint, T. Tran


Prevalence and treatment patterns of adult atopic dermatitis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Kleyn, R. McKenzie, A. Meeks, B. Gittens, L. von Arx


Antipsychotic Medication and Risk of Metabolic Disorders in People With Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Study Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: E. Eyles, R. Margelyte, H. Edwards, P. Moran, D. Kessler, S. Davies, B. Bolea-Alamañac, M. Redaniel, S. Sullivan


Healthcare utilisation and mortality in people with osteoarthritis in the UK: findings from a national primary care database


Authors: S. Swain, C. Coupland, A. Sarmanova, C. Kuo, C. Mallen, M. Doherty, W. Zhang


Drug utilization analysis of osteoporosis medications in seven European electronic health databases


Authors: E. Tan, D. Robinson, A. Jödicke, M. Mosseveld, K. Bødkergaard, C. Reyes, A. Moayyeri, A. Voss, E. Marconi, F. Lapi, J. Reinold, K. Verhamme, L. Pedersen, M. Braitmaier, M. de Wilde, M. Ruiz, M. Aragón, P. Bosco-Levy, R. Lassalle, D. Prieto-Alhambra, M. Sanchez-Santos


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


Multiple morbidity across the lifespan in people with Down syndrome or intellectual disabilities: a population-based cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Baksh, S. Pape, L. Chan, A. Aslam, M. Gulliford, A. Strydom