Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2709 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
P. G. Iyer, Borah, B. J., Heien, H. C., Das, A., Cooper, G. S., and Chak, A., Association of Barrett's esophagus with type II Diabetes Mellitus: results from a large population-based case-control study, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 11, pp. 1108-1114.e5, 2013.
J. L. Faillie, Yu, O. H., Yin, H., Hillaire-Buys, D., Barkun, A., and Azoulay, L., Association of Bile Duct and Gallbladder Diseases With the Use of Incretin-Based Drugs in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, JAMA Intern Med, vol. 176, pp. 1474-1481, 2016.
K. Bhaskaran, dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., Douglas, I. J., and Smeeth, L., Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 6, pp. 944-953, 2018.
E. Hak, de Vries, T. W., Hoekstra, P. J., and Jick, S. S., Association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with atopic diseases and skin infections? A matched case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, vol. 111, pp. 102-106.e2, 2013.
J. Browne, Edwards, D. A., Rhodes, K. M., Brimicombe, D. J., and Payne, R. A., Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012546, 2017.
J. P. Sheppard, Stevens, S., Stevens, R. J., Mant, J., Martin, U., Hobbs, F. D. R., and McManus, R. J., Association of guideline and policy changes with incidence of lifestyle advice and treatment for uncomplicated mild hypertension in primary care: a longitudinal cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e021827, 2018.
S. G. Bruderer, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Association of hormone therapy and incident gout: population-based case-control study, Menopause, vol. 22, pp. 1335-42, 2015.
H. B. Mehta, Mehta, V., and Goodwin, J. S., Association of Hypoglycemia With Subsequent Dementia in Older Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 72, pp. 1110-1116, 2017.
E. Hak, Shea, K. M., and Jick, S. S., Association of infant pneumococcal vaccination with pneumococcal pneumonia among mothers: a nested case-control study using the GPRD, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 1590-6, 2013.
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
J. M. Gamble, Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., Young, S. W., MacDonald, D., and Majumdar, S. R., Association of insulin dosage with mortality or major adverse cardiovascular events: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 5, pp. 43-52, 2017.
C. Clarke, Hamilton, W., Price, S., and Bailey, S. E., Association of non-malignant diseases with thrombocytosis: a prospective cohort study in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e852-e857, 2020.
S. Abtahi, Burden, A. M., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P., Van Staa, T., and de Vries, F., The Association of Oral Bisphosphonate Use With Mortality Risk Following a Major Osteoporotic Fracture in the United Kingdom: Population-Based Cohort Study, J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019.
E. P. Vamos, Pape, U. J., Bottle, A., Hamilton, F. L., Curcin, V., Ng, A., Molokhia, M., Car, J., Majeed, A., and Millett, C., Association of practice size and pay-for-performance incentives with the quality of diabetes management in primary care, Cmaj, vol. 183, pp. E809-16, 2011.
Z. Yang, Edwards, D., Burgess, S., Brayne, C., and Mant, J., Association of Prior Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease with Dementia After Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2020.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., and Payne, R., Association of prior lymphopenia with mortality in pneumonia: a cohort study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e148-e156, 2021.
A. Root, Brown, J. P., Forbes, H. J., Bhaskaran, K., Hayes, J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Association of Relative Age in the School Year With Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Depression, JAMA Pediatr, 2019.
C. Renoux, Vahey, S., Dell'Aniello, S., and Boivin, J. F., Association of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors With the Risk for Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage, JAMA Neurol, vol. 74, pp. 173-180, 2017.
S. K. Paul, Klein, K., Majeed, A., and Khunti, K., Association of smoking and concomitant metformin use with cardiovascular events and mortality in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, J Diabetes, vol. 8, pp. 354-62, 2016.
A. Alonso, Logroscino, G., Jick, S. S., and Hernan, M. A., Association of smoking with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk and survival in men and women: a prospective study, BMC Neurol, vol. 10, p. 6, 2010.
E. P. Vamos, Harris, M., Millett, C., Pape, U. J., Khunti, K., Curcin, V., Molokhia, M., and Majeed, A., Association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and all cause mortality in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e5567, 2012.
M. T. Redaniel, Gardner, M. P., Martin, R. M., and Jeffreys, M., The association of vitamin D supplementation with the risk of cancer in postmenopausal women, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 267-71, 2014.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Funston, G., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003504, 2021.
E. Kontopantelis, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Valderas, J. M., van der Veer, S. N., Reeves, D., Guthrie, B., and Doran, T., Associations between exemption and survival outcomes in the UK's primary care pay-for-performance programme: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Qual Saf, vol. 25, pp. 657-70, 2016.
H. Fan, Gilbert, R., O'Callaghan, F., and Li, L., Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 368, p. m331, 2020.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 383-9, 2016.
P. G. Kehoe, Davies, N. M., Martin, R. M., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., Associations of angiotensin targeting antihypertensive drugs with mortality and hospitalization in primary care patients with dementia, J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 33, pp. 999-1008, 2013.
B. Yang, Hagberg, K. W., Chen, J., Sahasrabuddhe, V. V., Graubard, B. I., Jick, S., and McGlynn, K. A., Associations of antibiotic use with risk of primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Cancer, vol. 115, pp. 85-9, 2016.
N. M. Davies, Kehoe, P. G., Ben-Shlomo, Y., and Martin, R. M., Associations of anti-hypertensive treatments with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other dementias, J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 26, pp. 699-708, 2011.
S. Hajat and Haines, A., Associations of cold temperatures with GP consultations for respiratory and cardiovascular disease amongst the elderly in London, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 825-30, 2002.
B. Yang, Petrick, J. L., Chen, J., Hagberg, K. W., Sahasrabuddhe, V. V., Graubard, B. I., Jick, S., and McGlynn, K. A., Associations of NSAID and paracetamol use with risk of primary liver cancer in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 43, pp. 105-11, 2016.
M. T. Redaniel, Jeffreys, M., May, M. T., Ben-Shlomo, Y., and Martin, R. M., Associations of type 2 diabetes and diabetes treatment with breast cancer risk and mortality: a population-based cohort study among British women, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 23, pp. 1785-95, 2012.
S. R. Pye, Sheppard, T., Joseph, R. M., Lunt, M., Girard, N., Haas, J. S., Bates, D. W., Buckeridge, D. L., van Staa, T. P., Tamblyn, R., and Dixon, W. G., Assumptions made when preparing drug exposure data for analysis have an impact on results: An unreported step in pharmacoepidemiology studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 781-788, 2018.
C. Vasilakis-Scaramozza, Aschengrau, A., Cabral, H. J., and Jick, S. S., Asthma drugs and the risk of congenital anomalies, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 33, pp. 363-8, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Hutchison, A., Davis, K. J., and de Vries, C. S., Asthma management in pregnancy, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e60247, 2013.
R. A. Charlton, Pierini, A., Klungsoyr, K., Neville, A. J., Jordan, S., van den Berg, L. T. de Jong, Thayer, D., Bos, H. J., Puccini, A., Hansen, A. V., Gini, R., Engeland, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and Garne, E., Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009237, 2016.
C. I. Bloom, Cabrera, C., Arnetorp, S., Coulton, K., Nan, C., van der Valk, R. J. P., and Quint, J. K., Asthma-Related Health Outcomes Associated with Short-Acting β(2)-Agonist Inhaler Use: An Observational UK Study as Part of the SABINA Global Program, Adv Ther, 2020.
M. Ardissino, Watson, F., Amin, R., Collins, P., Moussa, O., and Purkayastha, S., Atherosclerotic Disease Burden After Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes, J Diabetes, 2020.
K. E. Lowe, Mansfield, K. E., Delmestri, A., Smeeth, L., Roberts, A., Abuabara, K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and fracture risk in adults: A population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
A. Ascott, Mansfield, K. E., Schonmann, Y., Mulick, A., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and obesity: a population-based study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and risk of depression and anxiety: a population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2019.
A. C. Scowcroft and Cowie, M. R., Atrial fibrillation: improvement in identification and stroke preventive therapy - data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 2000-2012, Int J Cardiol, vol. 171, pp. 169-73, 2014.
S. McCarthy, Asherson, P., Coghill, D., Hollis, C., Murray, M., Potts, L., Sayal, K., de Soysa, R., Taylor, E., Williams, T., and Wong, I. C., Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 194, pp. 273-7, 2009.
V. Prasad, West, J., Kendrick, D., and Sayal, K., Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: variation by socioeconomic deprivation, Arch Dis Child, 2018.
N. N. Mehta, Yu, Y., Pinnelas, R., Krishnamoorthy, P., Shin, D. B., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Attributable risk estimate of severe psoriasis on major cardiovascular events, Am J Med, vol. 124, pp. 775.e1-6, 2011.
L. L. Lipscombe, Austin, P. C., Alessi-Severini, S., Blackburn, D. F., Blais, L., Bresee, L., Filion, K. B., Kawasumi, Y., Kurdyak, P., Platt, R. W., Tamim, H., and Paterson, J. M., Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycemic emergencies: multicentre, retrospective cohort study of administrative data, Schizophr Res, vol. 154, pp. 54-60, 2014.
H. Jick and Kaye, J. A., Autism and DPT vaccination in the United Kingdom, N Engl J Med, vol. 350, pp. 2722-3, 2004.
A. Lawson, West, J., Aithal, G. P., and Logan, R. F., Autoimmune cholestatic liver disease in people with coeliac disease: a population-based study of their association, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 21, pp. 401-5, 2005.
T. M. Anssar, Leitzmann, M. F., Linker, R. A., Meier, C., Becker, C., Jick, S., Sahm, K., Platten, M., Hau, P., and Seliger, C., Autoimmune diseases and immunosuppressive therapy in relation to the risk of glioma, Cancer Med, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 4 February 2021]