Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C., Colorectal cancer incidence on the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 775-783, 2012.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., and de Vries, C. S., Identifying major congenital malformations in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD): a study reporting on the sensitivity and added value of photocopied medical records and free text in the GPRD, Drug Saf, vol. 33, pp. 741-50, 2010.
R. A. Charlton, Weil, J. G., Cunnington, M. C., Ray, S., and de Vries, C. S., Comparing the General Practice Research Database and the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register as tools for postmarketing teratogen surveillance: anticonvulsants and the risk of major congenital malformations, Drug Saf, vol. 34, pp. 157-71, 2011.
J. Charlton, Latinovic, R., and Gulliford, M. C., Explaining the decline in early mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol. 31, pp. 1761-6, 2008.
R. A. Charlton, Cunnington, M. C., de Vries, C. S., and Weil, J. G., Data resources for investigating drug exposure during pregnancy and associated outcomes: the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) as an alternative to pregnancy registries, Drug Saf, vol. 31, pp. 39-51, 2008.
Z. Chaudhry, Mannan, F., Gibson-White, A., Syed, U., Ahmed, S., Kousoulis, A., and Majeed, A., Outputs and Growth of Primary Care Databases in the United Kingdom: Bibliometric Analysis, J Innov Health Inform, vol. 24, p. 942, 2017.
S. Cheeta, Drummond, C., Oyefeso, A., Phillips, T., Deluca, P., Perryman, K., and Coulton, S., Low identification of alcohol use disorders in general practice in England, Addiction, vol. 103, pp. 766-73, 2008.
Y. C. Chen, Wu, J. C., Haschler, I., Majeed, A., Chen, T. J., and Wetter, T., Academic impact of a public electronic health database: bibliometric analysis of studies using the general practice research database, PLoS One, vol. 6, p. e21404, 2011.
L. Chen, Reed, C., Happich, M., Nyhuis, A., and Lenox-Smith, A., Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, matched case-control study in the United Kingdom, BMC Geriatr, vol. 14, p. 76, 2014.
T. C. Chen, Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., A 15-year overview of increasing tramadol utilisation and associated mortality and the impact of tramadol classification in the United Kingdom, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 487-494, 2018.
A. Cherskov, Pohl, A., Allison, C., Zhang, H., Payne, R. A., and Baron-Cohen, S., Polycystic ovary syndrome and autism: A test of the prenatal sex steroid theory, Transl Psychiatry, vol. 8, p. 136, 2018.
V. Chhaya, Saxena, S., Cecil, E., Subramanian, V., Curcin, V., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R. C., Impact of timing and duration of thiopurine treatment on first perianal surgery in Crohn's disease: UK population-based study (1995-2009), Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 21, pp. 385-91, 2015.
C. C. Chi, Kirtschig, G., Aberer, W., Gabbud, J. P., Lipozencic, J., Karpati, S., Haustein, U. F., Zuberbier, T., and Wojnarowska, F., Evidence-based (S3) guideline on topical corticosteroids in pregnancy, Br J Dermatol, vol. 165, pp. 943-52, 2011.
C. C. Chi, Mayon-White, R. T., and Wojnarowska, F. T., Safety of topical corticosteroids in pregnancy: a population-based cohort study, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 131, pp. 884-91, 2011.
K. Chidwick, Strongman, H., Matthews, A., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Statin use in cancer survivors versus the general population: cohort study using primary care data from the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Cancer, vol. 18, p. 1018, 2018.
E. Chiquette, Oral, E. A., Garg, A., Araujo-Vilar, D., and Dhankhar, P., Estimating the prevalence of generalized and partial lipodystrophy: findings and challenges, Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, vol. 10, pp. 375-383, 2017.
C. W. Choi, Kim, G. H., Song, C. S., Wang, S. G., Lee, B. J., I, H., Kang, D. H., and Song, G. A., Is obesity associated with gastropharyngeal reflux disease?, World J Gastroenterol, vol. 14, pp. 265-71, 2008.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: its temporal relationships with disease onset and dose effect on mortality, Eur J Neurol, 2019.
T. P. Chu, Shah, A., Walker, D., and Coleman, M. P., Where are the opportunities for an earlier diagnosis of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults?, Eur J Paediatr Neurol, vol. 21, pp. 388-395, 2017.
T. P. C. Chu, Moran, G. W., and Card, T. R., The Pattern of Underlying Cause of Death in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in England: A Record Linkage Study, J Crohns Colitis, vol. 11, pp. 578-585, 2017.
T. P. C. Chu, Grainge, M. J., and Card, T. R., The risk of venous thromboembolism during and after hospitalisation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease activity, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 48, pp. 1099-1108, 2018.
T. P. Chu, Shah, A., Walker, D., and Coleman, M. P., Pattern of symptoms and signs of primary intracranial tumours in children and young adults: a record linkage study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 1115-22, 2015.
C. S. Chui, Chan, E. W., Wong, A. Y., Root, A., Douglas, I. J., and Wong, I. C., Association between oral fluoroquinolones and seizures: A self-controlled case series study, Neurology, vol. 86, pp. 1708-15, 2016.
A. T. Clarke, Johnson, P. C., Hall, G. C., Ford, I., and Mills, P. R., High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0151587, 2016.
L. E. Clarson, Hider, S. L., Belcher, J., Roddy, E., and Mallen, C. D., Factors Influencing Allopurinol Initiation in Primary Care, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 557-560, 2017.
L. E. Clarson, Hider, S. L., Belcher, J., Heneghan, C., Roddy, E., and Mallen, C. D., Increased risk of vascular disease associated with gout: a retrospective, matched cohort study in the UK clinical practice research datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 642-7, 2015.
P. Cleary, Shorvon, S., and Tallis, R., Late-onset seizures as a predictor of subsequent stroke, Lancet, vol. 363, pp. 1184-6, 2004.
G. M. Clifford, Logie, J., and Farmer, R. D., No risk of drug-associated liver injury with alpha1-adrenoreceptor blocking agents in men with BPH: results from an observational study using the GPRD, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 14, pp. 75-80, 2005.
G. M. Clifford, Logie, J., and Farmer, R. D., How do symptoms indicative of BPH progress in real life practice? The UK experience, Eur Urol, vol. 38 Suppl 1, pp. 48-53, 2000.
G. M. Clifford and Farmer, R. D., Drug or symptom-induced depression in men treated with alpha 1-blockers for benign prostatic hyperplasia? A nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 11, pp. 55-61, 2002.
H. Close, Mason, J. M., Wilson, D. W., Hungin, A. P., Jones, R., and Rubin, G., Risk of Ischaemic Heart Disease in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Cohort Study Using the General Practice Research Database, PLoS One, vol. 10, p. e0139745, 2015.
H. Close, Reilly, J., Mason, J. M., Kripalani, M., Wilson, D., Main, J., and Hungin, A. P., Renal failure in lithium-treated bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e90169, 2014.
H. Close, Mason, J. M., Wilson, D., and Hungin, A. P., Hormone replacement therapy is associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Gastroenterol, vol. 12, p. 56, 2012.
A. T. Cohen, Katholing, A., Rietbrock, S., Bamber, L., and Martinez, C., Epidemiology of first and recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer. A population-based cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 117, pp. 57-65, 2017.
C. Cohet, Haguinet, F., G. Santos, D., Webb, D., Logie, J., G. Ferreira, L., Rosillon, D., and Shinde, V., Effect of the adjuvanted (AS03) A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine on the risk of rejection in solid organ transplant recipients in England: a self-controlled case series, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009264, 2016.
J. J. Coleman, McDowell, S. E., Evans, S. J., Gill, P. S., and Ferner, R. E., Oversight: a retrospective study of biochemical monitoring in patients beginning antihypertensive drug treatment in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 109-17, 2010.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Health care resource use by patients before and after a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): a clinical practice research datalink study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 18, p. 60, 2017.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, J R Soc Med, vol. 110, pp. 231-244, 2017.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., O'Donnell, J., Nazarzadeh, M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Hobbs, F. D. R., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Diagnostic tests, drug prescriptions, and follow-up patterns after incident heart failure: A cohort study of 93,000 UK patients, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002805, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
C. Conradt, Guo, D., Miclea, A., Nisslein, T., Ismail, C., Chatamra, K., and Andersohn, F., Increased Prevalence of Polyneuropathy in Parkinson's Disease Patients: An Observational Study, J Parkinsons Dis, vol. 8, pp. 141-144, 2018.
M. N. Cook, Girman, C. J., Stein, P. P., Alexander, C. M., and Holman, R. R., Glycemic control continues to deteriorate after sulfonylureas are added to metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 28, pp. 995-1000, 2005.
M. N. Cook, Girman, C. J., Stein, P. P., and Alexander, C. M., Initial monotherapy with either metformin or sulphonylureas often fails to achieve or maintain current glycaemic goals in patients with Type 2 diabetes in UK primary care, Diabet Med, vol. 24, pp. 350-8, 2007.
M. J. Cook, Sorial, A. K., Lunt, M., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Effect of timing and duration of statin exposure on risk of hip or knee revision arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2019.
A. J. M. Cooper, Willis, J., Fuller, J., Benecke, H., Leighton-Scott, J., Andersohn, F., Kim, J., Maier, C., and Knaggs, R. D., Prevalence and Incidence Trends for Diagnosed Prescription Opioid Use Disorders in the United Kingdom, Pain Ther, vol. 6, pp. 73-84, 2017.
C. Cooper, Dennison, E. M., Leufkens, H. G., Bishop, N., and van Staa, T. P., Epidemiology of childhood fractures in Britain: a study using the general practice research database, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 19, pp. 1976-81, 2004.
C. Cooper, Steinbuch, M., Stevenson, R., Miday, R., and Watts, N. B., The epidemiology of osteonecrosis: findings from the GPRD and THIN databases in the UK, Osteoporos Int, vol. 21, pp. 569-77, 2010.
C. Cooper, Fox, K. M., and Borer, J. S., Ischaemic cardiac events and use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a nested case-control study in the CPRD, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 737-45, 2014.
A. L. Cope, Chestnutt, I. G., Wood, F., and Francis, N. A., Dental consultations in UK general practice and antibiotic prescribing rates: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e329-36, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]