Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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S. Ramtoola, Ploug, U. J., Kragh, N., and Nyeland, M. E., Characteristics of newly diagnosed adults with Type 1 diabetes in the UK and their evolution over the first 5 years, Diabetic Medicine, vol. 34, p. 146, 2017.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A., Wallander, M. A., Johansson, S., and Jones, R., Chest pain in general practice: incidence, comorbidity and mortality, Fam Pract, vol. 23, pp. 167-74, 2006.
A. Ruigomez, Masso-Gonzalez, E. L., Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Chest pain without established ischaemic heart disease in primary care patients: associated comorbidities and mortality, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 59, pp. e78-86, 2009.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
C. H. van Jaarsveld and Gulliford, M. C., Childhood obesity trends from primary care electronic health records in England between 1994 and 2013: population-based cohort study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 214-9, 2015.
J. M. Burnham, Shults, J., Weinstein, R., Lewis, J. D., and Leonard, M. B., Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 65, pp. 1074-9, 2006.
T. P. van Staa, Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Bishop, N., Children and the risk of fractures caused by oral corticosteroids, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 18, pp. 913-8, 2003.
T. Shao and Yang, Y. X., Cholecystectomy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 100, pp. 1813-20, 2005.
L. E. Derby, Jick, H., Henry, D. A., and Dean, A. D., Cholestatic hepatitis associated with flucloxacillin, Med J Aust, vol. 158, pp. 596-600, 1993.
S. Rietbrock, Heeley, E., Plumb, J., and Van Staa, T., Chronic atrial fibrillation: Incidence, prevalence, and prediction of stroke using the Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75, Diabetes mellitus, and prior Stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2) risk stratification scheme, Am Heart J, vol. 156, pp. 57-64, 2008.
A. Dregan, Charlton, J., Chowienczyk, P., and Gulliford, M. C., Chronic inflammatory disorders and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and stroke: a population-based cohort study, Circulation, vol. 130, pp. 837-44, 2014.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
C. Schneider, Bothner, U., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 25, pp. 253-60, 2010.
S. Menon, Nightingale, P., and Trudgill, N., Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Risk of Esophagitis, Barrett Esophagus, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Primary Care Case-Control Study, J Clin Gastroenterol, 2019.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Wallander, M. A., Tolosa, L. B., and Johansson, S., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in UK primary care: incidence and risk factors, Copd, vol. 6, pp. 369-79, 2009.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., Propert, K., Hwang, W. T., Sedarat, A., and Lewis, J. D., Chronic proton pump inhibitor therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Gastroenterology, vol. 133, pp. 748-54, 2007.
S. L. Stevens, Stevens, R. J., Hobbs, F. D., and Lasserson, D. S., Chronic renal disease is not chronic kidney disease: implications for use of the QRISK and Joint British Societies risk scores, Fam Pract, vol. 33, pp. 57-60, 2016.
Y. X. Yang, Hennessy, S., Propert, K., Hwang, W. T., Sarkar, M., and Lewis, J. D., Chronic statin therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 869-76, 2008.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
M. A. Hernan, Jick, S. S., Logroscino, G., Olek, M. J., Ascherio, A., and Jick, H., Cigarette smoking and the progression of multiple sclerosis, Brain, vol. 128, pp. 1461-5, 2005.
S. Jick, Ciprofloxacin safety in a pediatric population, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 16, pp. 130-3; discussion 133-4, 160-2, 1997.
H. I. McDonald, Thomas, S. L., Millett, E. R., and Nitsch, D., CKD and the risk of acute, community-acquired infections among older people with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 66, pp. 60-8, 2015.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
T. P. van Staa, Geusens, P., Bijlsma, J. W., Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., Clinical assessment of the long-term risk of fracture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 54, pp. 3104-12, 2006.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
C. Miani, Martin, A., Exley, J., Doble, B., Wilson, E., Payne, R., Avery, A., Meads, C., Kirtley, A., Jones, M. M., and King, S., Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of issuing longer versus shorter duration (3-month vs. 28-day) prescriptions in patients with chronic conditions: systematic review and economic modelling, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-128, 2017.
E. A. Shephard, Stapley, S., Neal, R. D., Rose, P., Walter, F. M., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bladder cancer in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 62, pp. e598-604, 2012.
S. A. Stapley, Rubin, G. P., Alsina, D., Shephard, E. A., Rutter, M. D., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bowel disease in patients aged <50 years in primary care: a large case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e336-e344, 2017.
E. Shephard, Neal, R., Rose, P., Walter, F., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of kidney cancer in primary care: a case-control study using primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e250-5, 2013.
W. Hamilton and Kernick, D., Clinical features of primary brain tumours: a case-control study using electronic primary care records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 695-9, 2007.
R. Persson and Jick, S., Clinical implications of the association between fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture: the magnitude of the effect with and without corticosteroids, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
K. Khunti, Wolden, M. L., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., and Davies, M. J., Clinical inertia in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of more than 80,000 people, Diabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 3411-7, 2013.
K. Khunti, Nikolajsen, A., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., Davies, M. J., and Paul, S. K., Clinical inertia with regard to intensifying therapy in people with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 401-9, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
L. Fiaschi, Nelson-Piercy, C., Deb, S., King, R., and Tata, L. J., Clinical management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum across primary and secondary care: a population based study, Bjog, 2019.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Sammon, C., and de Vries, C., The Clinical Practice Research Datalink for drug safety in pregnancy research: an overview, Therapie, vol. 69, pp. 83-9, 2014.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
S. E. Bailey, Ukoumunne, O. C., Shephard, E. A., and Hamilton, W., Clinical relevance of thrombocytosis in primary care: a prospective cohort study of cancer incidence using English electronic medical records and cancer registry data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e405-e413, 2017.
J. Chollet, Saragoussi, D., Clay, E., and Francois, C., A clinical research practice datalink analysis of antidepressant treatment patterns and health care costs in generalized anxiety disorder, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 1133-9, 2013.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Clinical risk factors for venous thromboembolus in users of the combined oral contraceptive pill, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 53, pp. 637-40, 2002.
F. D. R. Hobbs, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Stevens, S., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., and Salisbury, C., Clinical workload in UK primary care: a retrospective analysis of 100 million consultations in England, 2007-14, Lancet, vol. 387, pp. 2323-2330, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Kontopantelis, E., Ashcroft, D. M., Olier, I., Parisi, R., Chamapiwa, E., and Reeves, D., ClinicalCodes: an online clinical codes repository to improve the validity and reproducibility of research using electronic medical records, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e99825, 2014.
M. J. Brodie, Chung, S., Wade, A., Quelen, C., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Francois, C., Verpillat, P., Shen, V., and Isojarvi, J., Clobazam and clonazepam use in epilepsy: Results from a UK database incident user cohort study, Epilepsy Res, vol. 123, pp. 68-74, 2016.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
B. M. Hicks, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Clopidogrel use and cancer-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 830-40, 2015.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., Dregan, A., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Grieve, A. P., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Cluster randomised trial in the General Practice Research Database: 1. Electronic decision support to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Trials, vol. 12, p. 115, 2011.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]