Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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R. P. Cornish, Henderson, J., Boyd, A. W., Granell, R., Van Staa, T., and Macleod, J., Validating childhood asthma in an epidemiological study using linked electronic patient records, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005345, 2014.
R. Cornish, Macleod, J., Strang, J., Vickerman, P., and Hickman, M., Risk of death during and after opiate substitution treatment in primary care: prospective observational study in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 341, p. c5475, 2010.
R. P. Cornish, Boyd, A., Van Staa, T., Salisbury, C., and Macleod, J., Socio-economic position and childhood multimorbidity: a study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and the General Practice Research Database, Int J Equity Health, vol. 12, p. 66, 2013.
R. Costello, Jacklin, C., M. Evans, J., McBeth, J., and Dixon, W. G., Representativeness of a digitally engaged population and a patient organisation population with rheumatoid arthritis and their willingness to participate in research: a cross-sectional study, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000664, 2018.
R. Costello, Winthrop, K. L., Pye, S. R., Brown, B., and Dixon, W. G., Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Uptake in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Immunosuppressive Therapy in the UK: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0153848, 2016.
S. J. Cotton, Belcher, J., Rose, P., K. S, J., and Neal, R. D., The risk of a subsequent cancer diagnosis after herpes zoster infection: primary care database study, Br J Cancer, vol. 108, pp. 721-6, 2013.
S. Couraud, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case-control study, BMC Cancer, vol. 14, p. 573, 2014.
S. Couraud, Dell'Aniello, S., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Cardiac glycosides and the risk of breast cancer in women with chronic heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmia, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 146, pp. 619-26, 2014.
M. M. Crane, Webb, D. J., Watson, E., Cunliffe, T., and English, J., Hand eczema and steroid-refractory chronic hand eczema in general practice: prevalence and initial treatment, Br J Dermatol, vol. 176, pp. 955-964, 2017.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Jepsen, P., A validation study of the CirCom comorbidity score in an English cirrhosis population using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 107-120, 2018.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007974, 2015.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., Excess long-term mortality following non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 10, p. e1001437, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., Comorbidities affect risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1384-93, 1393.e1-2; quiz e18-9, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., Defining upper gastrointestinal bleeding from linked primary and secondary care data and the effect on occurrence and 28 day mortality, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 12, p. 392, 2012.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., Solaymani-Dodaran, M., and Card, T. R., The epidemiology of haemochromatosis: a population-based study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 29, pp. 183-92, 2009.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0165507, 2016.
M. J. Crowther, Lambert, P. C., and Abrams, K. R., Adjusting for measurement error in baseline prognostic biomarkers included in a time-to-event analysis: a joint modelling approach, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 13, p. 146, 2013.
D. Culliford, Maskell, J., Judge, A., and Arden, N. K., A population-based survival analysis describing the association of body mass index on time to revision for total hip and knee replacements: results from the UK general practice research database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003614, 2013.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Kiran, A., Judge, A., Javaid, M. K., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., The lifetime risk of total hip and knee arthroplasty: results from the UK general practice research database, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 20, pp. 519-24, 2012.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
D. Culliford, Maskell, J., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Arden, N. K., Future projections of total hip and knee arthroplasty in the UK: results from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 23, pp. 594-600, 2015.
C. J. Currie, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Voss, B., Rajpathak, S. N., Alemayehu, B., Peters, J. R., and Engel, S. S., Impact of differing glucose-lowering regimens on the pattern of association between glucose control and survival, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 821-830, 2018.
C. J. Currie, Berni, E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Poole, C. D., Ouwens, M., Driessen, S., de Voogd, H., Butler, C. C., and Morgan, C. L., Antibiotic treatment failure in four common infections in UK primary care 1991-2012: longitudinal analysis, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g5493, 2014.
C. J. Currie, Peters, J. R., Tynan, A., Evans, M., Heine, R. J., Bracco, O. L., Zagar, T., and Poole, C. D., Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, vol. 375, pp. 481-9, 2010.
C. J. Currie, Poole, C. D., Evans, M., Peters, J. R., and Morgan, C. L., Mortality and other important diabetes-related outcomes with insulin vs other antihyperglycemic therapies in type 2 diabetes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 98, pp. 668-77, 2013.
L. Currin, Schmidt, U., Treasure, J., and Jick, H., Time trends in eating disorder incidence, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 132-5, 2005.
H. J. Curtis, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Walker, A. J., Bacon, S., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Goldacre, B., Time trends and geographical variation in prescribing of drugs for diabetes in England from 1998 to 2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 2159-2168, 2018.
E. M. Curtis, van der Velde, R., Moon, R. J., van den Bergh, J. P., Geusens, P., de Vries, F., van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., and Harvey, N. C., Epidemiology of fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, Bone, vol. 87, pp. 19-26, 2016.
M. D. Danese, Gleeson, M., Kutikova, L., Griffiths, R. I., Azough, A., Khunti, K., Seshasai, S. R., and Ray, K. K., Estimating the economic burden of cardiovascular events in patients receiving lipid-modifying therapy in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011805, 2016.
M. D. Danese, Gleeson, M., Griffiths, R. I., Catterick, D., and Kutikova, L., Methods for estimating costs in patients with hyperlipidemia experiencing their first cardiovascular event in the United Kingdom, J Med Econ, vol. 20, pp. 931-937, 2017.
M. D. Danese, Gleeson, M., Kutikova, L., Griffiths, R. I., Khunti, K., Seshasai, S. R. K., and Ray, K. K., Management of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with cardiovascular events in the UK: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013851, 2017.
M. D. Danese, Halperin, M., Duryea, J., and Duryea, R., The Generalized Data Model for clinical research, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 117, 2019.
M. D. Danese, Sidelnikov, E., and Kutikova, L., The prevalence, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and treatment of patients at very high risk of cardiovascular events in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional study, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 34, pp. 1441-1447, 2018.
S. D'Angelo, Coggon, D., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., Sayer, A. A., Gale, C. R., Evandrou, M., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., Walker-Bone, K., and Palmer, K. T., Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 512-9, 2016.
R. Das, Langerman, H., D'Oca, K., and Strongman, H., An Observational Cohort Study of Diabetes-Associated Secondary Health Care Utilisation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Prescribed Dual Combination Therapy With Oral Anti-Hyperglycaemic Agents in the UK, Value Health, vol. 17, p. A360, 2014.
S. S. Daskalopoulou, Delaney, J. A., Filion, K. B., Brophy, J. M., Mayo, N. E., and Suissa, S., Discontinuation of statin therapy following an acute myocardial infarction: a population-based study, Eur Heart J, vol. 29, pp. 2083-91, 2008.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., and Beynon, J., Opportunities and Challenges in Developing a Cohort of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Electronic Primary Care Data, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162236, 2016.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., Beynon, J., and Donegan, K., Patterns of anti-diabetic medication use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in England and Wales, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 127-135, 2017.
J. Daugherty, Lin, X., Baxter, R., Suruki, R., and Bradford, E., The impact of long-term systemic glucocorticoid use in severe asthma: A UK retrospective cohort analysis, J Asthma, vol. 55, pp. 651-658, 2018.
G. Davey, Sedgwick, P., Maier, W., Visick, G., Strachan, D. P., and Anderson, H. R., Association between migraine and asthma: matched case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 52, pp. 723-7, 2002.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, G., Taylor, A. E., Thomas, K. H., Windmeijer, F., Martin, R. M., and Munafo, M. R., What are the effects of varenicline compared with nicotine replacement therapy on long-term smoking cessation and clinically important outcomes? Protocol for a prospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e009665, 2015.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, G. M. J., Taylor, A. E., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records, Addiction, vol. 113, pp. 1105-1116, 2018.
N. M. Davies, Gunnell, D., Thomas, K. H., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., Physicians' prescribing preferences were a potential instrument for patients' actual prescriptions of antidepressants, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 66, pp. 1386-96, 2013.
N. M. Davies, Smith, G. D., Windmeijer, F., and Martin, R. M., COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal tract complications and myocardial infarction: an instrumental variable analysis, Epidemiology, vol. 24, pp. 352-62, 2013.
N. M. Davies, Kehoe, P. G., Ben-Shlomo, Y., and Martin, R. M., Associations of anti-hypertensive treatments with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other dementias, J Alzheimers Dis, vol. 26, pp. 699-708, 2011.
N. M. Davies, Thomas, K. H., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., and Windmeijer, F., How to compare instrumental variable and conventional regression analyses using negative controls and bias plots, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 46, pp. 2067-2077, 2017.
K. Davies, Johnson, E. L., Hollen, L., Jones, H. M., Lyttle, M. D., Maguire, S., and Kemp, A. M., Incidence of medically attended paediatric burns across the UK, Inj Prev, 2019.
J. Dawson, Fulton, R., McInnes, G. T., Morton, R., Morrison, D., Padmanabhan, S., Hewitt, J., Meredith, P., Muir, S., Dominiczak, A. F., and Walters, M. R., Acetaminophen use and change in blood pressure in a hypertensive population, J Hypertens, vol. 31, pp. 1485-90; discussion 1490, 2013.
F. J. de Abajo and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine therapy: interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and effect of acid-suppressing agents, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 65, pp. 795-803, 2008.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]