Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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R. Cushen and Francis, N. A., Antibiotic use and serious complications following acute otitis media and acute sinusitis: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e255-e263, 2020.
H. J. Curtis, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Walker, A. J., Bacon, S., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Goldacre, B., Time trends and geographical variation in prescribing of drugs for diabetes in England from 1998 to 2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 2159-2168, 2018.
E. M. Curtis, van der Velde, R., Moon, R. J., van den Bergh, J. P., Geusens, P., de Vries, F., van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., and Harvey, N. C., Epidemiology of fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, Bone, vol. 87, pp. 19-26, 2016.
L. Currin, Schmidt, U., Treasure, J., and Jick, H., Time trends in eating disorder incidence, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 132-5, 2005.
C. J. Currie, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Voss, B., Rajpathak, S. N., Alemayehu, B., Peters, J. R., and Engel, S. S., Impact of differing glucose-lowering regimens on the pattern of association between glucose control and survival, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 821-830, 2018.
C. J. Currie, Berni, E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Poole, C. D., Ouwens, M., Driessen, S., de Voogd, H., Butler, C. C., and Morgan, C. L., Antibiotic treatment failure in four common infections in UK primary care 1991-2012: longitudinal analysis, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g5493, 2014.
C. J. Currie, Peters, J. R., Tynan, A., Evans, M., Heine, R. J., Bracco, O. L., Zagar, T., and Poole, C. D., Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, vol. 375, pp. 481-9, 2010.
C. J. Currie, Poole, C. D., Evans, M., Peters, J. R., and Morgan, C. L., Mortality and other important diabetes-related outcomes with insulin vs other antihyperglycemic therapies in type 2 diabetes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 98, pp. 668-77, 2013.
D. Curran, Hunjan, M., A. Ghachi, E., El-Hahi, Y., Bianco, V., and Ferreira, G., Herpes zoster related healthcare burden and costs in immunocompromised (IC) and IC-free populations in England: an observational retrospective database analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023502, 2019.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Kiran, A., Judge, A., Javaid, M. K., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., The lifetime risk of total hip and knee arthroplasty: results from the UK general practice research database, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 20, pp. 519-24, 2012.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
D. Culliford, Maskell, J., Judge, A., and Arden, N. K., A population-based survival analysis describing the association of body mass index on time to revision for total hip and knee replacements: results from the UK general practice research database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003614, 2013.
D. Culliford, Maskell, J., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Arden, N. K., Future projections of total hip and knee arthroplasty in the UK: results from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 23, pp. 594-600, 2015.
M. J. Crowther, Lambert, P. C., and Abrams, K. R., Adjusting for measurement error in baseline prognostic biomarkers included in a time-to-event analysis: a joint modelling approach, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 13, p. 146, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., Solaymani-Dodaran, M., and Card, T. R., The epidemiology of haemochromatosis: a population-based study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 29, pp. 183-92, 2009.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007974, 2015.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Jepsen, P., A validation study of the CirCom comorbidity score in an English cirrhosis population using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 107-120, 2018.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., The Use of a Bayesian Hierarchy to Develop and Validate a Co-Morbidity Score to Predict Mortality for Linked Primary and Secondary Care Data from the NHS in England, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0165507, 2016.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., Excess long-term mortality following non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a population-based cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 10, p. e1001437, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., Comorbidities affect risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1384-93, 1393.e1-2; quiz e18-9, 2013.
C. J. Crooks, Card, T. R., and West, J., Defining upper gastrointestinal bleeding from linked primary and secondary care data and the effect on occurrence and 28 day mortality, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 12, p. 392, 2012.
J. A. Critchley, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Glycemic Control and Risk of Infections Among People With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Primary Care Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2127-2135, 2018.
J. A. Critchley, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., and Cook, D. G., Variability in Glycated Hemoglobin and Risk of Poor Outcomes Among People With Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Primary Care Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 2237-2246, 2019.
E. Crellin, Mansfield, K. E., Leyrat, C., Nitsch, D., Douglas, I. J., Root, A., Williamson, E., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 360, p. k341, 2018.
M. M. Crane, Webb, D. J., Watson, E., Cunliffe, T., and English, J., Hand eczema and steroid-refractory chronic hand eczema in general practice: prevalence and initial treatment, Br J Dermatol, vol. 176, pp. 955-964, 2017.
S. Couraud, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case-control study, BMC Cancer, vol. 14, p. 573, 2014.
S. Couraud, Dell'Aniello, S., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Cardiac glycosides and the risk of breast cancer in women with chronic heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmia, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 146, pp. 619-26, 2014.
S. J. Cotton, Belcher, J., Rose, P., K. S, J., and Neal, R. D., The risk of a subsequent cancer diagnosis after herpes zoster infection: primary care database study, Br J Cancer, vol. 108, pp. 721-6, 2013.
R. Costello, Jacklin, C., M. Evans, J., McBeth, J., and Dixon, W. G., Representativeness of a digitally engaged population and a patient organisation population with rheumatoid arthritis and their willingness to participate in research: a cross-sectional study, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000664, 2018.
R. Costello, Winthrop, K. L., Pye, S. R., Brown, B., and Dixon, W. G., Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Uptake in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Immunosuppressive Therapy in the UK: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0153848, 2016.
R. E. Costello, Yimer, B. B., Roads, P., Jani, M., and Dixon, W. G., Glucocorticoid use is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
R. P. Cornish, Henderson, J., Boyd, A. W., Granell, R., Van Staa, T., and Macleod, J., Validating childhood asthma in an epidemiological study using linked electronic patient records, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e005345, 2014.
R. P. Cornish, Boyd, A., Van Staa, T., Salisbury, C., and Macleod, J., Socio-economic position and childhood multimorbidity: a study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and the General Practice Research Database, Int J Equity Health, vol. 12, p. 66, 2013.
R. Cornish, Macleod, J., Strang, J., Vickerman, P., and Hickman, M., Risk of death during and after opiate substitution treatment in primary care: prospective observational study in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 341, p. c5475, 2010.
A. L. Cope, Chestnutt, I. G., Wood, F., and Francis, N. A., Dental consultations in UK general practice and antibiotic prescribing rates: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e329-36, 2016.
C. Cooper, Fox, K. M., and Borer, J. S., Ischaemic cardiac events and use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a nested case-control study in the CPRD, Osteoporos Int, vol. 25, pp. 737-45, 2014.
C. Cooper, Dennison, E. M., Leufkens, H. G., Bishop, N., and van Staa, T. P., Epidemiology of childhood fractures in Britain: a study using the general practice research database, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 19, pp. 1976-81, 2004.
C. Cooper, Steinbuch, M., Stevenson, R., Miday, R., and Watts, N. B., The epidemiology of osteonecrosis: findings from the GPRD and THIN databases in the UK, Osteoporos Int, vol. 21, pp. 569-77, 2010.
A. J. M. Cooper, Willis, J., Fuller, J., Benecke, H., Leighton-Scott, J., Andersohn, F., Kim, J., Maier, C., and Knaggs, R. D., Prevalence and Incidence Trends for Diagnosed Prescription Opioid Use Disorders in the United Kingdom, Pain Ther, vol. 6, pp. 73-84, 2017.
M. J. Cook, Sorial, A. K., Lunt, M., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Effect of timing and duration of statin exposure on risk of hip or knee revision arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2019.
M. N. Cook, Girman, C. J., Stein, P. P., and Alexander, C. M., Initial monotherapy with either metformin or sulphonylureas often fails to achieve or maintain current glycaemic goals in patients with Type 2 diabetes in UK primary care, Diabet Med, vol. 24, pp. 350-8, 2007.
M. N. Cook, Girman, C. J., Stein, P. P., Alexander, C. M., and Holman, R. R., Glycemic control continues to deteriorate after sulfonylureas are added to metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 28, pp. 995-1000, 2005.
C. Conradt, Guo, D., Miclea, A., Nisslein, T., Ismail, C., Chatamra, K., and Andersohn, F., Increased Prevalence of Polyneuropathy in Parkinson's Disease Patients: An Observational Study, J Parkinsons Dis, vol. 8, pp. 141-144, 2018.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Pinho-Gomes, A. C., Millett, E. R. C., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal Trends and Patterns in Mortality After Incident Heart Failure: A Longitudinal Analysis of 86000 Individuals, JAMA Cardiol, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., O'Donnell, J., Nazarzadeh, M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Hobbs, F. D. R., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Diagnostic tests, drug prescriptions, and follow-up patterns after incident heart failure: A cohort study of 93,000 UK patients, PLoS Med, vol. 16, p. e1002805, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Tran, J., Mohseni, H., Hedgecott, D., Crespillo, A. P., Allison, M., Hemingway, H., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal trends and patterns in heart failure incidence: a population-based study of 4 million individuals, Lancet, vol. 391, pp. 572-580, 2018.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Health care resource use by patients before and after a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): a clinical practice research datalink study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 18, p. 60, 2017.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, J R Soc Med, vol. 110, pp. 231-244, 2017.
J. J. Coleman, McDowell, S. E., Evans, S. J., Gill, P. S., and Ferner, R. E., Oversight: a retrospective study of biochemical monitoring in patients beginning antihypertensive drug treatment in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 109-17, 2010.
C. Cohet, Haguinet, F., G. Santos, D., Webb, D., Logie, J., G. Ferreira, L., Rosillon, D., and Shinde, V., Effect of the adjuvanted (AS03) A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine on the risk of rejection in solid organ transplant recipients in England: a self-controlled case series, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009264, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]