Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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T. A. Durham, K. Lich, H., Viera, A. J., Fine, J. P., Mukherjee, J., Weinberger, M., and Dusetzina, S. B., Utilization of Standard and Target-Specific Oral Anticoagulants Among Adults in the United Kingdom With Incident Atrial Fibrillation, Am J Cardiol, vol. 120, pp. 1820-1829, 2017.
N. Dunn, Lane, D., Everitt, H., and Little, P., Use of antibiotics for sore throat and incidence of quinsy, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 57, pp. 45-9, 2007.
N. Dunn, Holmes, C., and Mullee, M., Does lithium therapy protect against the onset of dementia?, Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, vol. 19, pp. 20-2, 2005.
N. Dunn, Mullee, M., Perry, V. H., and Holmes, C., Association between dementia and infectious disease: evidence from a case-control study, Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, vol. 19, pp. 91-4, 2005.
R. G. Duijnhoven, Straus, S. M., Souverein, P. C., de Boer, A., Bosch, J. L., Hoes, A. W., and De Bruin, M. L., Long-term use of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors and the risk of male breast cancer, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 25, pp. 1577-82, 2014.
J. H. Driessen, van den Bergh, J. P., van Onzenoort, H. A., Henry, R. M., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Long-term use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and risk of fracture: A retrospective population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 421-428, 2017.
J. H. Driessen, Henry, R. M., van Onzenoort, H. A., Lalmohamed, A., Burden, A. M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Neef, C., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Bone fracture risk is not associated with the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a population-based cohort analysis, Calcif Tissue Int, vol. 97, pp. 104-12, 2015.
J. H. Driessen, van Onzenoort, H. A., Henry, R. M., Lalmohamed, A., van den Bergh, J. P., Neef, C., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of fracture, Bone, vol. 68, pp. 124-30, 2014.
A. Dregan, Matcham, F., Harber-Aschan, L., Rayner, L., Brailean, A., Davis, K., Hatch, S., Pariante, C., Armstrong, D., Stewart, R., and Hotopf, M., Common mental disorders within chronic inflammatory disorders: a primary care database prospective investigation, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
A. Dregan, Moller, H., Murray-Thomas, T., and Gulliford, M. C., Validity of cancer diagnosis in a primary care database compared with linked cancer registrations in England. Population-based cohort study, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 36, pp. 425-9, 2012.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
A. Dregan, Ravindrarajah, R., Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., and Molokhia, M., Long-term trends in antithrombotic drug prescriptions among adults aged 80 years and over from primary care: a temporal trends analysis using electronic health records, Ann Epidemiol, vol. 28, pp. 440-446, 2018.
A. Dregan, Charlton, J., Chowienczyk, P., and Gulliford, M. C., Chronic inflammatory disorders and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and stroke: a population-based cohort study, Circulation, vol. 130, pp. 837-44, 2014.
A. Dregan, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C. D., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., Gulliford, M. C., and Steering, C. Trial, Point-of-care cluster randomized trial in stroke secondary prevention using electronic health records, Stroke, vol. 45, pp. 2066-71, 2014.
A. Dregan, Grieve, A., Van Staa, T., and Gulliford, M. C., Potential application of item-response theory to interpretation of medical codes in electronic patient records, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 11, p. 168, 2011.
A. Dregan, Toschke, M. A., Wolfe, C. D., Rudd, A., Ashworth, M., and Gulliford, M. C., Utility of electronic patient records in primary care for stroke secondary prevention trials, BMC Public Health, vol. 11, p. 86, 2011.
J. Drahos, Li, L., Jick, S. S., and Cook, M. B., Metabolic syndrome in relation to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: Results from a large population-based case-control study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 42, pp. 9-14, 2016.
M. Doyle, While, D., Mok, P. L., Windfuhr, K., Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Appleby, L., Shaw, J., and Webb, R. T., Suicide risk in primary care patients diagnosed with a personality disorder: a nested case control study, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 17, p. 106, 2016.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as second line drugs in type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular and hypoglycaemic events: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2693, 2018.
A. Douros, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Pharmacologic Differences of Sulfonylureas and the Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular and Hypoglycemic Events, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1506-1513, 2017.
A. Douros, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Renoux, C., Hudson, M., and Azoulay, L., Use of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and New-onset Rheumatoid Arthritis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Epidemiology, vol. 29, pp. 904-912, 2018.
A. Douros, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Etminan, M., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Incident Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2330-2338, 2018.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Suissa, S., Comparative cardiovascular and hypoglycemic safety of glimepiride in type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
A. Douros, Rouette, J., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Filion, K. B., and Azoulay, L., Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Bullous Pemphigoid Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, 2019.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Dehghan, G., Boivin, J. F., and Renoux, C., Degree of serotonin reuptake inhibition of antidepressants and ischemic risk: A cohort study, Neurology, vol. 93, pp. e1010-e1020, 2019.
I. J. Douglas, Langham, J., Bhaskaran, K., Brauer, R., and Smeeth, L., Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f1936, 2013.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., Bariatric Surgery in the United Kingdom: A Cohort Study of Weight Loss and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Clinical Care, PLoS Med, vol. 12, p. e1001925, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 1020-7, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., Fletcher, A. E., and Smeeth, L., A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol. 114, pp. 1164-9, 2007.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Pocock, S., and Smeeth, L., The risk of fractures associated with thiazolidinediones: a self-controlled case-series study, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000154, 2009.
I. J. Douglas and Smeeth, L., Exposure to antipsychotics and risk of stroke: self controlled case series study, Bmj, vol. 337, p. a1227, 2008.
I. Douglas, Evans, S., Rawlins, M. D., Smeeth, L., Tabrizi, S. J., and Wexler, N. S., Juvenile Huntington's disease: a population-based study using the General Practice Research Database, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
I. Douglas, Smeeth, L., and Irvine, D., The use of antidepressants and the risk of haemorrhagic stroke: a nested case control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 71, pp. 116-20, 2011.
C. R. Dormuth, Hemmelgarn, B. R., Paterson, J. M., James, M. T., Teare, G. F., Raymond, C. B., Lafrance, J. P., Levy, A., Garg, A. X., and Ernst, P., Use of high potency statins and rates of admission for acute kidney injury: multicenter, retrospective observational analysis of administrative databases, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f880, 2013.
S. Donovan, The Use of the General Practice Research Database (Gprd) to Examine Potential Links between Antidepressant Medication and the Incidence of Suicide, Drug Information Journal, vol. 30, pp. 785-792, 1996.
K. Donegan, Owen, R., Bird, H., Burch, B., Smith, A., and Tregunno, P., Exploring the Potential Routine Use of Electronic Healthcare Record Data to Strengthen Early Signal Assessment in UK Medicines Regulation: Proof-of-Concept Study, Drug Saf, vol. 41, pp. 899-910, 2018.
K. Donegan, King, B., and Bryan, P., Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g4219, 2014.
K. Donegan, Fox, N., Black, N., Livingston, G., Banerjee, S., and Burns, A., Trends in diagnosis and treatment for people with dementia in the UK from 2005 to 2015: a longitudinal retrospective cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 2, pp. e149-e156, 2017.
K. Donegan, Beau-Lejdstrom, R., King, B., Seabroke, S., Thomson, A., and Bryan, P., Bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine and the risk of fatigue syndromes in girls in the UK, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 4961-7, 2013.
R. M. Dommett, Redaniel, M. T., Stevens, M. C., Hamilton, W., and Martin, R. M., Features of childhood cancer in primary care: a population-based nested case-control study, Br J Cancer, vol. 106, pp. 982-7, 2012.
R. M. Dommett, Redaniel, M. T., Stevens, M. C., Hamilton, W., and Martin, R. M., Features of cancer in teenagers and young adults in primary care: a population-based nested case-control study, Br J Cancer, vol. 108, pp. 2329-33, 2013.
R. M. Dommett, Redaniel, T., Stevens, M. C., Martin, R. M., and Hamilton, W., Risk of childhood cancer with symptoms in primary care: a population-based case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e22-9, 2013.
J. Dollerup, Vestbo, J., Murray-Thomas, T., Kaplan, A., Martin, R. J., Pizzichini, E., Pizzichini, M. M. M., Burden, A., Martin, J., and Price, D. B., Cardiovascular risks in smokers treated with nicotine replacement therapy: a historical cohort study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 231-243, 2017.
P. Dolan, Torgerson, D. J., and Wolstenholme, J., Costs of breast cancer treatment in the United Kingdom, Breast, vol. 8, pp. 205-7, 1999.
P. Dolan and Torgerson, D. J., The cost of treating osteoporotic fractures in the United Kingdom female population, Osteoporos Int, vol. 8, pp. 611-7, 1998.
C. N. Dodd, Romio, S. A., Black, S., Vellozzi, C., Andrews, N., Sturkenboom, M., Zuber, P., Hua, W., Bonhoeffer, J., Buttery, J., Crawford, N., Deceuninck, G., de Vries, C., De Wals, P., Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. V., Heijbel, H., Hughes, H., Hur, K., Hviid, A., Kelman, J., Kilpi, T., Chuang, S. K., Macartney, K., Rett, M., Lopez-Callada, V. R., Salmon, D., Gimenez-Sanchez, F., Sanz, N., Silverman, B., Storsaeter, J., Thirugnanam, U., van der Maas, N., Yih, K., Zhang, T., and Izurieta, H., International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines, Vaccine, vol. 31, pp. 4448-58, 2013.
B. Doble, Payne, R., Harshfield, A., and Wilson, E. C. F., Retrospective, multicohort analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to determine differences in the cost of medication wastage, dispensing fees and prescriber time of issuing either short (<60 days) or long (>/=60 days) prescription leng, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e019382, 2017.
F. DM, Practice based information systems for monitoring medicines, Pharmaceutical Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 161-176, 1994.
W. G. Dixon and Solomon, D. H., Bisphosphonates and esophageal cancer–a pathway through the confusion, Nat Rev Rheumatol, vol. 7, pp. 369-72, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]