Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 118 results:
[ Author(Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is K  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
A. I. Kurdi, Chen, L. C., and Elliott, R. A., Exploring factors associated with patients' adherence to antihypertensive drugs among people with primary hypertension in the United Kingdom, J Hypertens, vol. 35, pp. 1881-1890, 2017.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
S. K. Kurd, Troxel, A. B., Crits-Christoph, P., and Gelfand, J. M., The risk of depression, anxiety, and suicidality in patients with psoriasis: a population-based cohort study, Arch Dermatol, vol. 146, pp. 891-5, 2010.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 661-7, 2015.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Effect of allopurinol on all-cause mortality in adults with incident gout: propensity score-matched landmark analysis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2145-50, 2015.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Comorbidities in patients with gout prior to and following diagnosis: case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 210-7, 2016.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Impact of gout on the risk of atrial fibrillation, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 55, pp. 721-8, 2016.
C. F. Kuo, Chou, I. J., See, L. C., Chen, J. S., Yu, K. H., Luo, S. F., Hsieh, A. H., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Urate-lowering treatment and risk of total joint replacement in patients with gout, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 2129-2139, 2018.
R. Y. L. Kuo, Ng, M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Furniss, D., Dupuytren's disease predicts increased all-cause and cancer-specific mortality: analysis of a large cohort from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Plast Reconstr Surg, 2019.
R. Kumar, Hepatitis B virus infection and diabetes mellitus: An adverse relationship A letter in response to Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with diabetes mellitus in the UK: A population-based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Researc, J Viral Hepat, vol. 25, p. 1401, 2018.
M. C. Kulik, Nusselder, W. J., Boshuizen, H. C., Lhachimi, S. K., Fernandez, E., Baili, P., Bennett, K., Mackenbach, J. P., and Smit, H. A., Comparison of tobacco control scenarios: quantifying estimates of long-term health impact using the DYNAMO-HIA modeling tool, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e32363, 2012.
J. G. Kuiper, van Herk-Sukel, M. P. P., Castellsague, J., Pottegard, A., Berglind, I. A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Use of Topical Tacrolimus and Topical Pimecrolimus in Four European Countries: A Multicentre Database Cohort Study, Drugs Real World Outcomes, 2018.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
V. Kuan, Denaxas, S., A Izquierdo, G. -, Direk, K., Bhatti, O., Husain, S., Sutaria, S., Hingorani, M., Nitsch, D., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, T., Mathur, R., Sofat, R., Casas, J. P., Wong, I. C. K., Hemingway, H., and Hingorani, A. D., A chronological map of 308 physical and mental health conditions from 4 million individuals in the English National Health Service, The Lancet Digital Health, 2019.
R. Krishnamoorthi, Borah, B., Heien, H., Das, A., Chak, A., and Iyer, P. G., Rates and predictors of progression to esophageal carcinoma in a large population-based Barrett's esophagus cohort, Gastrointest Endosc, vol. 84, pp. 40-46.e7, 2016.
K. Kostikas, Rhee, C. K., Hurst, J. R., Agostoni, P., Cao, H., Fogel, R., Jones, R., Kocks, J. W. H., Mezzi, K., S. Ming, W. Yau, Ryan, R., and Price, D. B., Adequacy of Therapy for People with Both COPD and Heart Failure in the UK: Historical Cohort Study, Pragmat Obs Res, vol. 11, pp. 55-66, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Price, D., Gutzwiller, F. S., Jones, B., Loefroth, E., Clemens, A., Fogel, R., Jones, R., and Cao, H., Clinical Impact and Healthcare Resource Utilization Associated with Early versus Late COPD Diagnosis in Patients from UK CPRD Database, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 1729-1738, 2020.
M. Kosiborod, Cavender, M. A., Fu, A. Z., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Holl, R. W., Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Thuresson, M., Arya, N., Bodegard, J., Hammar, N., and Fenici, P., Lower Risk of Heart Failure and Death in Patients Initiated on Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Versus Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs: The CVD-REAL Study (Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiovascular Outcomes in New Users of Sodium-Glucose Cotranspo, Circulation, vol. 136, pp. 249-259, 2017.
E. Koshy, Watt, H., Curcin, V., Bottle, A., Sharland, M., and Saxena, S., Tonsillectomy among children with low baseline acute throat infection consultation rates in UK general practices: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e006686, 2015.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Oke, J. L., Nicholson, B. D., Shephard, E., Braddick, M., and Hamilton, W., Early detection of multiple myeloma in primary care using blood tests: a case-control study in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e586-e593, 2018.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Nicholson, B. D., Lay-Flurrie, S., Hobbs, F. R., and Oke, J. L., Clinical prediction tools to identify patients at highest risk of myeloma in primary care: a retrospective open cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e347-e355, 2021.
C. E. Koro, Fedder, D. O., L'Italien, G. J., Weiss, S., Magder, L. S., Kreyenbuhl, J., Revicki, D., and Buchanan, R. W., An assessment of the independent effects of olanzapine and risperidone exposure on the risk of hyperlipidemia in schizophrenic patients, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 59, pp. 1021-6, 2002.
C. E. Koro, Fedder, D. O., L'Italien, G. J., Weiss, S. S., Magder, L. S., Kreyenbuhl, J., Revicki, D. A., and Buchanan, R. W., Assessment of independent effect of olanzapine and risperidone on risk of diabetes among patients with schizophrenia: population based nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 325, p. 243, 2002.
C. E. Koro, Bowlin, S. J., and Weiss, S. R., Antidiabetic therapy and the risk of heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients: an independent effect or confounding by indication, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 14, pp. 697-703, 2005.
C. J. Kornegay, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., and Jick, H., Incident diabetes associated with antipsychotic use in the United Kingdom general practice research database, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 63, pp. 758-62, 2002.
P. Korhonen, Heintjes, E. M., Williams, R., Hoti, F., Christopher, S., Majak, M., Kool-Houweling, L., Strongman, H., Linder, M., Dolin, P., and Bahmanyar, S., Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using datasets from four European countries, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3903, 2016.
U. Koppe, Nitsch, D., Mansfield, K. E., Mathur, R., Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Long-term effects of bariatric surgery on acute kidney injury: a propensity-matched cohort in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020371, 2018.
E. Kontopantelis, Parisi, R., Springate, D. A., and Reeves, D., Longitudinal multiple imputation approaches for body mass index or other variables with very low individual-level variability: the mibmi command in Stata, BMC Res Notes, vol. 10, p. 41, 2017.
E. Kontopantelis, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Valderas, J. M., van der Veer, S. N., Reeves, D., Guthrie, B., and Doran, T., Associations between exemption and survival outcomes in the UK's primary care pay-for-performance programme: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Qual Saf, vol. 25, pp. 657-70, 2016.
E. Kontopantelis, Reeves, D., Valderas, J. M., Campbell, S., and Doran, T., Recorded quality of primary care for patients with diabetes in England before and after the introduction of a financial incentive scheme: a longitudinal observational study, BMJ Qual Saf, vol. 22, pp. 53-64, 2013.
E. Kontopantelis, Olier, I., Planner, C., Reeves, D., Ashcroft, D. M., Gask, L., Doran, T., and Reilly, S., Primary care consultation rates among people with and without severe mental illness: a UK cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e008650, 2015.
E. Kontopantelis, Springate, D. A., Reeves, D., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., Buchan, I., and Doran, T., Glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels and their relationships to clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 58, pp. 505-18, 2015.
E. Kontopantelis, Stevens, R. J., Helms, P. J., Edwards, D., Doran, T., and Ashcroft, D. M., Spatial distribution of clinical computer systems in primary care in England in 2016 and implications for primary care electronic medical record databases: a cross-sectional population study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020738, 2018.
E. Kontopantelis, Springate, D., Reeves, D., Ashcroft, D. M., Valderas, J. M., and Doran, T., Withdrawing performance indicators: retrospective analysis of general practice performance under UK Quality and Outcomes Framework, Bmj, vol. 348, p. g330, 2014.
E. Kontopantelis, Panagioti, M., Farragher, T., Munford, L. A., Parisi, R., Planner, C., Spooner, S., Tse, A., Ashcroft, D. M., and Esmail, A., Consultation patterns and frequent attenders in UK primary care from 2000 to 2019: a retrospective cohort analysis of consultation events across 845 general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e054666, 2021.
L. M. Knapen, de Jong, R. G., Driessen, J. H., Keulemans, Y. C., van Erp, N. P., De Bruin, M. L., Leufkens, H. G., Croes, S., and de Vries, F., Use of incretin agents and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 401-411, 2017.
L. M. Knapen, van Dalem, J., Keulemans, Y. C., van Erp, N. P., Bazelier, M. T., De Bruin, M. L., Leufkens, H. G., Croes, S., Neef, C., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H., Use of incretin agents and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 258-65, 2016.
C. Klop, de Vries, F., Bijlsma, J. W., Leufkens, H. G., and Welsing, P. M., Predicting the 10-year risk of hip and major osteoporotic fracture in rheumatoid arthritis and in the general population: an independent validation and update of UK FRAX without bone mineral density, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 2095-2100, 2016.
C. Klop, van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., Harvey, N. C., and de Vries, F., The epidemiology of mortality after fracture in England: variation by age, sex, time, geographic location, and ethnicity, Osteoporos Int, vol. 28, pp. 161-168, 2017.
C. Klop, Gibson-Smith, D., Elders, P. J., Welsing, P. M., Leufkens, H. G., Harvey, N. C., Bijlsma, J. W., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., Anti-osteoporosis drug prescribing after hip fracture in the UK: 2000-2010, Osteoporos Int, vol. 26, pp. 1919-28, 2015.
C. Klop, Welsing, P. M., Cooper, C., Harvey, N. C., Elders, P. J., Bijlsma, J. W., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., Mortality in British hip fracture patients, 2000-2010: a population-based retrospective cohort study, Bone, vol. 66, pp. 171-7, 2014.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Santella, C., Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Tascilar, K., Yin, H., Aprikian, A., Bitton, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 184, pp. 15-22, 2016.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Yin, H., Tagalakis, V., Aprikian, A., and Azoulay, L., Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism, Eur Urol, vol. 70, pp. 56-61, 2016.
A. J. Klil-Drori, Yin, H., Abenhaim, H. A., Fort, G. G. du, and Azoulay, L., Prolactin-Elevating Antipsychotics and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 78, pp. 714-719, 2017.
H. Kither, Heazell, A., Bruce, I. N., Tower, C., and Crocker, I., Adverse pregnancy outcomes and subsequent development of connective tissue disease in the UK: an epidemiological study, Bjog, 2020.
V. A. Kiri, Bettoncelli, G., Testi, R., and Viegi, G., Inhaled corticosteroids are more effective in COPD patients when used with LABA than with SABA, Respir Med, vol. 99, pp. 1115-24, 2005.
V. A. Kiri, Pride, N. B., Soriano, J. B., and Vestbo, J., Inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from two observational designs free of immortal time bias, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 172, pp. 460-4, 2005.
V. A. Kiri, Soriano, J., Visick, G., and Fabbri, L., Recent trends in lung cancer and its association with COPD: an analysis using the UK GP Research Database, Prim Care Respir J, vol. 19, pp. 57-61, 2010.
J. C. Kingswood, Crawford, P., Johnson, S. R., Sampson, J. R., Shepherd, C., Demuth, D., Erhard, C., Nasuti, P., Patel, K., Myland, M., Pinnegar, A., Magestro, M., and Gray, E., The economic burden of tuberous sclerosis complex in the UK: A retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Med Econ, vol. 19, pp. 1087-1098, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]