Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,300 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 September 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 189 pages)


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A. Lafuma, Salmon, J. F., Robert, J., and Berdeaux, G., Treatment persistence and cost-effectiveness of latanoprost/latanoprost-timolol, bimatoprost/bimatoprost-timolol, and travoprost/travoprost-timolol in glaucoma: an analysis based on the United Kingdom general practitioner research database, Clin Ophthalmol, vol. 5, pp. 361-7, 2011.
A. Lafuma and Berdeaux, G., Costs and effectiveness of travoprost versus a dorzolamide + timolol fixed combination in first-line treatment of glaucoma: analysis conducted on the United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 23, pp. 3009-16, 2007.
A. Lafuma and Berdeaux, G., Costs and persistence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor versus alpha-2 agonists, associated with beta-blockers, in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: an analysis of the UK-GPRD database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 24, pp. 1519-27, 2008.
A. Lafuma, Laurendeau, C., and Berdeaux, G., Costs and persistence of brimonidine versus brinzolamide in everyday glaucoma care: an analysis conducted on the UK General Practitioner Research Database, J Med Econ, vol. 11, pp. 485-97, 2008.
A. Lalmohamed, Macgregor, A. J., de Vries, F., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Patterns of risk of cancer in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements versus other bearing surface types: a record linkage study between a prospective joint registry and general practice electronic health records in England, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e65891, 2013.
A. Lalmohamed, Bazelier, M. T., van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Leufkens, H. G., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., Causes of death in patients with multiple sclerosis and matched referent subjects: a population-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 19, pp. 1007-14, 2012.
A. Lalmohamed, de Vries, F., Bazelier, M. T., Cooper, A., van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., and Harvey, N. C., Risk of fracture after bariatric surgery in the United Kingdom: population based, retrospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e5085, 2012.
D. Lambrelli, Merinopoulou, E., Donaldson, R., Mardekian, J., Hlavacek, P., Tarasenko, L., Masseria, C., and Hobbs, F. D., Real-world treatment patterns among patients initiating on statins in England, Value in Health, vol. 20, pp. A630-631, 2017.
D. Lambrelli, Burge, R., Raluy-Callado, M., Chen, S. Y., Wu, N., and Schoenfeld, M. J., Retrospective database study to assess the economic impact of hip fracture in the United Kingdom, J Med Econ, vol. 17, pp. 817-25, 2014.
F. X. Lamy, Chollet, J., Clay, E., Brignone, M., Rive, B., and Saragoussi, D., Pharmacotherapeutic strategies for patients treated for depression in UK primary care: a database analysis, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 31, pp. 795-807, 2015.
F. X. Lamy, Saragoussi, D., Johnson, M. E., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Jorgensen, K. T., Loze, J. Y., and Maguire, A., The use of adjunctive antipsychotics to treat depression in UK primary care, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 33, pp. 891-898, 2017.
T. Lancaster, Surman, G., Lawrence, M., Mant, D., Vessey, M., Thorogood, M., Yudkin, P., and Daly, E., Hormone replacement therapy: characteristics of users and non-users in a British general practice cohort identified through computerised prescribing records, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 49, pp. 389-94, 1995.
T. Lancaster, Swart, A. M., and Jick, H., Risk of serious haematological toxicity with use of chloramphenicol eye drops in a British general practice database, Bmj, vol. 316, p. 667, 1998.
S. Landis, Suruki, R., Maskell, J., Bonar, K., Hilton, E., and Compton, C., Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of COPD Patients at Different Blood Eosinophil Levels in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Copd, vol. 15, pp. 177-184, 2018.
S. H. Landis, Suruki, R., Hilton, E., Compton, C., and Galwey, N. W., Stability of Blood Eosinophil Count in Patients with COPD in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 382-388, 2017.
S. H. Landis, Wurst, K., Le, H. V., Bonar, K., and Punekar, Y. S., Can Assessment of Disease Burden Prior to Changes in Initial COPD Maintenance Treatment Provide Insight into Remaining Unmet Needs? A Retrospective Database Study in UK Primary Care, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 80-85, 2017.
D. A. Lane, Skjoth, F., Lip, G. Y. H., Larsen, T. B., and Kotecha, D., Temporal Trends in Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of Atrial Fibrillation in Primary Care, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 6, 2017.
A. Lane, Metcalfe, C., Young, G. J., Peters, T. J., Blazeby, J., Avery, K. N., Dedman, D., Down, L., Mason, M. D., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., and Donovan, J. L., Patient-reported outcomes in the ProtecT randomized trial of clinically localized prostate cancer treatments: study design, and baseline urinary, bowel and sexual function and quality of life, BJU Int, vol. 118, pp. 869-879, 2016.
S. Lane, Lynn, E., and Shakir, S., Measuring the impact of product withdrawals and other major pharmacovigilance actions on public health burden in the EU: Methodological considerations, Drug Safety, vol. 40, pp. 953-4, 2017.
S. F. Lanes, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, and Huerta, C., Respiratory medications and risk of asthma death, Thorax, vol. 57, pp. 683-6, 2002.
S. F. Lanes, Rodrigeuz, L. A., and Hwangg, E., Baseline risk of gastrointestinal disorders among new users of meloxicam, ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen and indomethacin, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 9, pp. 113-7, 2000.
S. M. Langan, Minassian, C., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Risk of stroke following herpes zoster: a self-controlled case-series study, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 1497-503, 2014.
S. M. Langan, Groves, R. W., Card, T. R., and Gulliford, M. C., Incidence, mortality, and disease associations of pyoderma gangrenosum in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 132, pp. 2166-70, 2012.
S. M. Langan, Groves, R. W., and West, J., The relationship between neurological disease and bullous pemphigoid: a population-based case-control study, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 131, pp. 631-6, 2011.
S. M. Langan, Smeeth, L., Margolis, D. J., and Thomas, S. L., Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older US Population: A Cohort Study, PLOS Medicine, vol. 10, p. e1001420, 2013.
S. Langham, Wright, A., Shaw, H., Bryson, S., and O'Leary, S., Budget impact analysis of oral glycopyrronium bromide (Sialanar™) for the symptomatic treatment of severe sialorrhoea (Drooling) in the UK setting, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A720, 2017.
J. Langham and Langham, S., European real world data sources to characterise flares in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A review, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A571, 2017.
M. J. Langman, Cheng, K. K., Gilman, E. A., and Lancashire, R. J., Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on overall risk of common cancer: case-control study in general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 320, pp. 1642-6, 2000.
L. L. Lanza, McQuay, L. J., Rothman, K. J., Bone, H. G., Kaunitz, A. M., Harel, Z., Ataher, Q., Ross, D., Arena, P. L., and Wolter, K. D., Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception and incidence of bone fracture, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 121, pp. 593-600, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Niazi, M. T., Yin, H., Benayoun, S., and Suissa, S., Androgen deprivation therapy and risk of acute kidney injury in patients with prostate cancer, Jama, vol. 310, pp. 289-96, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Nessim, S. J., and Suissa, S., Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. e8525, 2013.
F. Lapi, Azoulay, L., Kezouh, A., Benisty, J., Matok, I., Mugelli, A., and Suissa, S., The use of antidepressants and the risk of chronic atrial fibrillation, J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 55, pp. 423-30, 2015.
L. Laredo, Vargas, E., Blasco, A. J., Aguilar, M. D., Moreno, A., and Portoles, A., Risk of cerebrovascular accident associated with use of antipsychotics: population-based case-control study, J Am Geriatr Soc, vol. 59, pp. 1182-7, 2011.
N. Larivee, Suissa, S., Coulombe, J., Tagalakis, V., and Filion, K. B., Drospirenone-Containing Oral Contraceptive Pills and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: An Assessment of Risk in First-Time Users and Restarters, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 583-596, 2017.
N. Larivee, Suissa, S., Eberg, M., Joseph, L., Eisenberg, M. J., Abenhaim, H. A., and Filion, K. B., Drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptives and the risk of arterial thrombosis: a population-based nested case-control study, Bjog, vol. 124, pp. 1672-1679, 2017.
R. Latinovic, Gulliford, M., and Ridsdale, L., Headache and migraine in primary care: consultation, prescription, and referral rates in a large population, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 77, pp. 385-7, 2006.
R. Latinovic, Gulliford, M. C., and Hughes, R. A., Incidence of common compressive neuropathies in primary care, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol. 77, pp. 263-5, 2006.
M. Lawrence, Coulter, A., and Jones, L., A total audit of preventive procedures in 45 practices caring for 430,000 patients, Bmj, vol. 300, pp. 1501-3, 1990.
M. Lawrence, Jones, L., Lancaster, T., Daly, E., and Banks, E., Hormone replacement therapy: patterns of use studied through British general practice computerized records, Fam Pract, vol. 16, pp. 335-42, 1999.
R. Lawrenson and Farmer, R., Venous thromboembolism and combined oral contraceptives: does the type of progestogen make a difference?, Contraception, vol. 62, p. 21S-28S; discussion 37S-38S, 2000.
R. Lawrenson, Todd, J. C., Leydon, G. M., Williams, T. J., and Farmer, R. D., Validation of the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in general practice database studies, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 49, pp. 591-6, 2000.
R. Lawrenson, Wyndaele, J. J., Vlachonikolis, I., Farmer, C., and Glickman, S., A UK general practice database study of prevalence and mortality of people with neural tube defects, Clin Rehabil, vol. 14, pp. 627-30, 2000.
R. Lawrenson, Wyndaele, J. J., Vlachonikolis, I., Farmer, C., and Glickman, S., Renal failure in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, Neuroepidemiology, vol. 20, pp. 138-43, 2001.
R. A. Lawrenson and Logie, J. W., Antibiotic failure in the treatment of urinary tract infections in young women, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 48, pp. 895-901, 2001.
A. Lawson, West, J., Aithal, G. P., and Logan, R. F., Autoimmune cholestatic liver disease in people with coeliac disease: a population-based study of their association, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 21, pp. 401-5, 2005.
C. A. Lawson, Zaccardi, F., Squire, I., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Mamas, M. A., Khunti, K., and Kadam, U. T., 20-year trends in cause-specific heart failure outcomes by sex, socioeconomic status, and place of diagnosis: a population-based study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 4, pp. e406-e420, 2019.
S. Lay-Flurrie, Mathieu, E., Bankhead, C., Nicholson, B. D., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Salisbury, C., Patient consultation rate and clinical and NHS outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care data from 2.7 million patients in 238 practices, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 19, p. 219, 2019.
I. Le Ray, Dell'Aniello, S., Bonnetain, F., Azoulay, L., and Suissa, S., Local estrogen therapy and risk of breast cancer recurrence among hormone-treated patients: a nested case-control study, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 135, pp. 603-9, 2012.
C. W. le Roux, Chubb, B., Nortoft, E., and Borglykke, A., Obesity and healthcare resource utilization: results from Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD), Obes Sci Pract, vol. 4, pp. 409-416, 2018.
J. Leal, Gray, A. M., Hawley, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Delmestri, A., Arden, N. K., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Judge, A., Cost-Effectiveness of Orthogeriatric and Fracture Liaison Service Models of Care for Hip Fracture Patients: A Population-Based Study, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 32, pp. 203-211, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 September 2019]