Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
R. Y. Suruki, Daugherty, J. B., Boudiaf, N., and Albers, F. C., The frequency of asthma exacerbations and healthcare utilization in patients with asthma from the UK and USA, BMC Pulm Med, vol. 17, p. 74, 2017.
A. Sundstrom, Seaman, H., Kieler, H., and Alfredsson, L., The risk of venous thromboembolism associated with the use of tranexamic acid and other drugs used to treat menorrhagia: a case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, Bjog, vol. 116, pp. 91-7, 2009.
X. Sun and Gulliford, M. C., Reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England from 2014 to 2017: population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023989, 2019.
X. Sun, Douiri, A., and Gulliford, M., Pneumonia incidence trends in UK primary care from 2002 to 2017: population-based cohort study, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 147, p. e263, 2019.
D. Sumilo, Nirantharakumar, K., Willis, B. H., Rudge, G., Martin, J., Gokhale, K., Thayakaran, R., Adderley, N. J., Chandan, J. S., Okoth, K., Hewston, R., Skrybant, M., Deeks, J. J., and Brocklehurst, P., Long-term impact of giving antibiotics before skin incision versus after cord clamping on children born by caesarean section: protocol for a longitudinal study based on UK electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e033013, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, Whittle, R., Muller, S., Roddy, E., Mallen, C. D., Bucknall, M., Helliwell, T., Hider, S., and Paskins, Z., Risk of fragility fracture among patients with gout and the effect of urate-lowering therapy, Cmaj, vol. 190, pp. E581-e587, 2018.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Muller, S., Hider, S., Scott, I., Helliwell, T., and Hall, L. J., Antibiotic use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based case-control study, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 154, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, Muller, S., Whittle, R., Roddy, E., Mallen, C., and Clarson, L., Venous thromboembolism in patients with gout and the impact of hospital admission, disease duration and urate-lowering therapy, Cmaj, vol. 191, pp. E597-e603, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, West, J., Grainge, M. J., Riley, R. D., Tata, L. J., Stephansson, O., Fleming, K. M., Nelson-Piercy, C., and Ludvigsson, J. F., Development and validation of risk prediction model for venous thromboembolism in postpartum women: multinational cohort study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i6253, 2016.
A. A. Sultan, Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., Crooks, C. J., Ludvigsson, J. F., Dhalwani, N. N., Ban, L., and West, J., Pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes among women with celiac disease: a population-based study from England, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 109, pp. 1653-61, 2014.
A. A. Sultan, Crooks, C. J., Card, T., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., and West, J., Causes of death in people with coeliac disease in England compared with the general population: a competing risk analysis, Gut, vol. 64, pp. 1220-6, 2015.
A. A. Sultan, West, J., Ban, L., Humes, D., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., Nelson-Piercy, C., and Card, T., Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Study from England, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 22, pp. 1621-30, 2016.
A. A. Sultan, Tata, L. J., Grainge, M. J., and West, J., The incidence of first venous thromboembolism in and around pregnancy using linked primary and secondary care data: a population based cohort study from England and comparative meta-analysis, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e70310, 2013.
A. A. Sultan, West, J., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., Nelson-Piercy, C., and Grainge, M. J., Risk of first venous thromboembolism in pregnant women in hospital: population based cohort study from England, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6099, 2013.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Hayward, R., Muller, S., Whittle, R., Hotston, M., and Roddy, E., Gout and subsequent erectile dysfunction: a population-based cohort study from England, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 19, p. 123, 2017.
C. O. Sullivan, Omar, R. Z., Ambler, G., and Majeed, A., Case-mix and variation in specialist referrals in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 55, pp. 529-33, 2005.
S. Suissa, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., Evans, M., Vora, J., and Pollak, M., Long-term effects of insulin glargine on the risk of breast cancer, Diabetologia, vol. 54, pp. 2254-62, 2011.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness of LABA-ICS versus LAMA as initial treatment in COPD targeted by blood eosinophils: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 6, pp. 855-862, 2018.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Concurrent use of long-acting bronchodilators in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, Eur Respir J, vol. 49, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Long-Acting Bronchodilator Initiation in COPD and the Risk of Adverse Cardiopulmonary Events: A Population-Based Comparative Safety Study, Chest, vol. 151, pp. 60-67, 2017.
S. Suissa, Moodie, E. E., and Dell'Aniello, S., Prevalent new-user cohort designs for comparative drug effect studies by time-conditional propensity scores, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 459-468, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effects of LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA for COPD: Cohort study in real world clinical practice: LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA in COPD, Chest, 2019.
D. Suissa, Delaney, J. A., Dial, S., and Brassard, P., Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 74, pp. 370-5, 2012.
D. C. Suh, Lee, D. H., McGuire, M., and Kim, C. M., Impact of rosiglitazone therapy on the lipid profile, glycemic control, and medication costs among type 2 diabetes patients, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 27, pp. 1623-33, 2011.
M. C. Sturkenboom, Meier, C. R., Jick, H., and Stricker, B. H., Minocycline and lupuslike syndrome in acne patients, Arch Intern Med, vol. 159, pp. 493-7, 1999.
H. Strongman, Korhonen, P., Williams, R., Bahmanyar, S., Hoti, F., Christopher, S., Majak, M., Kool-Houweling, L., Linder, M., Dolin, P., and Heintjes, E. M., Pioglitazone and risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a European multidatabase cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 5, p. e000364, 2017.
H. Strongman, Williams, R., Meeraus, W., Murray-Thomas, T., Campbell, J., Carty, L., Dedman, D., Gallagher, A., Oyinlola, J., Kousoulis, A., and Valentine, J., Limitations for health research with restricted data collection from UK primary care, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
H. Strongman, Brown, A., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Body mass index and Hodgkin's lymphoma: UK population-based cohort study of 5.8 million individuals, Br J Cancer, 2019.
H. Strongman, Gadd, S., Matthews, A., Mansfield, K. E., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Medium and long-term risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of 20 adult cancers: a population-based cohort study using multiple linked UK electronic health records databases, Lancet, 2019.
H. Strongman, Christopher, S., Majak, M., Williams, R., Bahmanyar, S., Linder, M., Heintjes, E. M., Bennett, D., Korhonen, P., and Hoti, F., Pioglitazone and cause-specific risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: extended analysis from a European multidatabase cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 6, p. e000481, 2018.
H. Strongman, Kausar, I., and Maher, T. M., Incidence, Prevalence, and Survival of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the UK, Adv Ther, vol. 35, pp. 724-736, 2018.
H. Strongman, D'Oca, K., Langerman, H., and Das, R., Comparison of diabetes-associated secondary healthcare utilization between alternative oral antihyperglycaemic dual therapy combinations with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 17, pp. 573-80, 2015.
B. L. Strom, Schinnar, R., Apter, A. J., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., Bilker, W. B., and Pettitt, D., Absence of cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and sulfonamide nonantibiotics, N Engl J Med, vol. 349, pp. 1628-35, 2003.
W. D. Strain, Tsang, C., Hurst, M., McEwan, P., Unadkat, M., Meadowcroft, S., Shardlow, R., and Evans, M., What Next After Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes? Selecting the Right Drug for the Right Patient, Diabetes Ther, vol. 11, pp. 1381-1395, 2020.
J. Stowe, Andrews, N., Wise, L., and Miller, E., Investigation of the temporal association of Guillain-Barre syndrome with influenza vaccine and influenzalike illness using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 169, pp. 382-8, 2009.
J. Stowe, Andrews, N., Wise, L., and Miller, E., Bell's palsy and parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine, Hum Vaccin, vol. 2, pp. 110-2, 2006.
J. Stowe, Andrews, N., Bryan, P., Seabroke, S., and Miller, E., Risk of convulsions in children after monovalent H1N1 (2009) and trivalent influenza vaccines: a database study, Vaccine, vol. 29, pp. 9467-72, 2011.
D. Stolz, Kostikas, K., Loefroth, E., Fogel, R., Clemens, A., Gutzwiller, F. S., Conti, V., and Cao, H., Gender differences in COPD exacerbations: Analysis from the CPRD database, Thorax, vol. 72, p. A186, 2017.
D. Stolz, Kostikas, K., Loefroth, E., Fogel, R., Gutzwiller, F. S., Conti, V., Cao, H., and Clemens, A., Differences in COPD exacerbation risk between women and men: analysis from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink data, Chest, 2019.
C. Stolwijk, Essers, I., van Tubergen, A., Boonen, A., Bazelier, M. T., De Bruin, M. L., and de Vries, F., The epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based matched cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 74, pp. 1373-8, 2015.
L. M. Stolk, de Vries, F., Ebbelaar, C., de Boer, A., Schalekamp, T., Souverein, P., A. Cate-Hoek, T., and Burden, A. M., Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation using vitamin K antagonists, aspirin or direct acting oral anticoagulants, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 1835-1843, 2017.
N. A. Stohler, Reinau, D., Jick, S. S., Bodmer, D., and Meier, C. R., A study on the epidemiology of tinnitus in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 855-871, 2019.
S. J. Stocks, Kontopantelis, E., Akbarov, A., Rodgers, S., Avery, A. J., and Ashcroft, D. M., Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 351, p. h5501, 2015.
S. J. Stocks, Kontopantelis, E., Webb, R. T., Avery, A. J., Burns, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Antipsychotic Prescribing to Patients Diagnosed with Dementia Without a Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Context of National Guidance and Drug Safety Warnings: Longitudinal Study in UK General Practice, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 679-692, 2017.
D. Stewart, Han, L., Doran, T., and McCambridge, J., Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality: an analysis of general practice database records for patients with long-term conditions, J Epidemiol Community Health, vol. 71, pp. 729-735, 2017.
S. L. Stevens, McManus, R. J., and Stevens, R. J., The utility of long-term blood pressure variability for cardiovascular risk prediction in primary care, J Hypertens, 2018.
S. L. Stevens, Stevens, R. J., Hobbs, F. D., and Lasserson, D. S., Chronic renal disease is not chronic kidney disease: implications for use of the QRISK and Joint British Societies risk scores, Fam Pract, vol. 33, pp. 57-60, 2016.
S. Stevens, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T. A., Salisbury, C., and Hobbs, F. D. R., Patient-level and practice-level factors associated with consultation duration: a cross-sectional analysis of over one million consultations in English primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e018261, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]