Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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G. L. Zornberg and Jick, H., Antipsychotic drug use and risk of first-time idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a case-control study, Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1219-23, 2000.
F. Zingone, Sultan, A. A., Humes, D. J., and West, J., Risk of acute appendicitis in and around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study from England, Ann Surg, vol. 261, pp. 332-7, 2015.
F. Zingone, A. Sultan, A., Crooks, C. J., Tata, L. J., Ciacci, C., and West, J., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia among 9803 patients with coeliac disease compared to the general population: a cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 44, pp. 57-67, 2016.
C. S. Zin, Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Changes in trends and pattern of strong opioid prescribing in primary care, Eur J Pain, vol. 18, pp. 1343-51, 2014.
Z. Zhou, Althin, R., Sforzolini, B. S., and Dhawan, R., Persistency and treatment failure in newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma patients in the United Kingdom, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 88, pp. 1391-4, 2004.
E. H. Zhou, Gelperin, K., Levenson, M. S., Rose, M., Hsueh, Y. H., and Graham, D. J., Risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death in patients initiating olmesartan or other angiotensin receptor blockers - a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 340-7, 2014.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Trends in Hospital Admission for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1870-1877, 2018.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Kontopantelis, E., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Proximal HbA1C Level and First Hypoglycemia Hospitalization in Adults with Incident Type 2 Diabetes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2019.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Kontopantelis, E., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Incidence and Trends in Hypoglycemia Hospitalization in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1651-1660, 2017.
B. Zhang, de Vries, F., Setakis, E., and van Staa, T. P., The pattern of risk of myocardial infarction in patients taking asthma medication: a study with the General Practice Research Database, J Hypertens, vol. 27, pp. 1485-92, 2009.
S. S. Zghebi, Rutter, M. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Peek, N., Planner, C., Nowakowska, M., Mamas, M., and Kontopantelis, E., Using electronic health records to quantify and stratify the severity of type 2 diabetes in primary care in England: rationale and cohort study design, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020926, 2018.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Carr, M. J., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Examining trends in type 2 diabetes incidence, prevalence and mortality in the UK between 2004 and 2014, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1537-1545, 2017.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Comparative risk of major cardiovascular events associated with second-line antidiabetic treatments: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data linked to hospitalization and mortality records, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 916-24, 2016.
D. Zenner, Kruijshaar, M. E., Andrews, N., and Abubakar, I., Risk of tuberculosis in pregnancy: a national, primary care-based cohort and self-controlled case series study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 185, pp. 779-84, 2012.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]