Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,200 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 187 pages)


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K. E. Mansfield, Douglas, I. J., Nitsch, D., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 187-202, 2018.
M. F. Barakat, McDonald, H. I., Collier, T. J., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Quint, J. K., Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 10, pp. 2067-77, 2015.
C. Minassian, Thomas, S. L., Williams, D. J., Campbell, O., and Smeeth, L., Acute maternal infection and risk of pre-eclampsia: a population-based case-control study, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e73047, 2013.
M. Schmidt, Mansfield, K. E., Bhaskaran, K., Nitsch, D., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Adherence to guidelines for creatinine and potassium monitoring and discontinuation following renin-angiotensin system blockade: a UK general practice-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012818, 2017.
D. Nitsch, Douglas, I., Smeeth, L., and Fletcher, A., Age-related macular degeneration and complement activation-related diseases: a population-based case-control study, Ophthalmology, vol. 115, pp. 1904-10, 2008.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
K. L. Goh, Bhaskaran, K., Minassian, C., Evans, S. J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia: cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 337-50, 2015.
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
E. C. Somers, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Hall, A. J., Are individuals with an autoimmune disease at higher risk of a second autoimmune disorder?, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 169, pp. 749-55, 2009.
A. Skow, Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., The association between Parkinson's disease and anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine: a case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 76, pp. 816-22, 2013.
K. Bhaskaran, dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., Douglas, I. J., and Smeeth, L., Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 6, pp. 944-953, 2018.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Duyx, B., Thomas, S. L., Stogiannis, D., Smeeth, L., and Hemingway, H., Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases, Heart, vol. 102, pp. 383-9, 2016.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A case control study of age related macular degeneration and use of statins, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 89, pp. 1171-5, 2005.
L. Smeeth, Hall, A. J., Fombonne, E., Rodrigues, L. C., Huang, X., and Smith, P. G., A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology, BMC Public Health, vol. 1, p. 2, 2001.
I. J. Douglas, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., Fletcher, A. E., and Smeeth, L., A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol. 114, pp. 1164-9, 2007.
L. Smeeth, Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., Cataract and the use of statins: a case-control study, Qjm, vol. 96, pp. 337-43, 2003.
J. P. H. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight after initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice., Diabetologia., vol. 60, p. S301, 2017.
J. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 116, 2018.
J. K. Quint, Millett, E. R., Joshi, M., Navaratnam, V., Thomas, S. L., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., and Brown, J. S., Changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of bronchiectasis in the UK from 2004 to 2013: a population-based cohort study, Eur Respir J, vol. 47, pp. 186-93, 2016.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
S. L. Thomas, Minassian, C., Ganesan, V., Langan, S. M., and Smeeth, L., Chickenpox and risk of stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, vol. 58, pp. 61-8, 2014.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
T. P. van Staa, Leufkens, H. G., Zhang, B., and Smeeth, L., A comparison of cost effectiveness using data from randomized trials or actual clinical practice: selective cox-2 inhibitors as an example, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000194, 2009.
E. Herrett, Shah, A. D., Boggon, R., Denaxas, S., Smeeth, L., Van Staa, T., Timmis, A., and Hemingway, H., Completeness and diagnostic validity of recording acute myocardial infarction events in primary care, hospital care, disease registry, and national mortality records: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f2350, 2013.
R. Mathur, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Leon, D. A., vanStaa, T., Grundy, E., and Smeeth, L., Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 684-92, 2014.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e775-e782, 2018.
A. D. Morgan, Herrett, E., De Stavola, B. L., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., COPD disease severity and the risk of venous thromboembolic events: a matched case-control study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 899-908, 2016.
J. K. Quint, Herrett, E., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J. A., and Smeeth, L., Effect of beta blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f6650, 2013.
J. F. Hayes, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., The effect of sibutramine prescribing in routine clinical practice on cardiovascular outcomes: a cohort study in the United Kingdom, Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 39, pp. 1359-64, 2015.
I. J. Douglas, Bhaskaran, K., Batterham, R. L., and Smeeth, L., The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 1020-7, 2015.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Ng, E. S., Goldacre, B., and Gulliford, M., The efficiency of cardiovascular risk assessment: do the right patients get statin treatment?, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 1597-602, 2013.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
T. P. van Staa, Smeeth, L., Persson, I., Parkinson, J., and Leufkens, H. G., Evaluating drug toxicity signals: is a hierarchical classification of evidence useful or a hindrance?, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 475-84, 2008.
A. A. Root, Wong, A. Y., Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y., Smeeth, L., Bhaskaran, K., Evans, S. J., Brauer, R., Wong, I. C., Navaratnam, V., and Douglas, I., Evaluation of the risk of cardiovascular events with clarithromycin using both propensity score and self-controlled study designs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 82, pp. 512-21, 2016.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
I. J. Douglas and Smeeth, L., Exposure to antipsychotics and risk of stroke: self controlled case series study, Bmj, vol. 337, p. a1227, 2008.
R. Hubbard, Farrington, P., Smith, C., Smeeth, L., and Tattersfield, A., Exposure to tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 158, pp. 77-84, 2003.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2019]