Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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G. C. Hall, Morant, S. V., Carroll, D., Gabriel, Z. L., and McQuay, H. J., An observational descriptive study of the epidemiology and treatment of neuropathic pain in a UK general population, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 14, p. 28, 2013.
C. D. Poole, Halcox, J. P., Jenkins-Jones, S., Carr, E. S., Schifflers, M. G., Ray, K. K., and Currie, C. J., Omega-3 Fatty acids and mortality outcome in patients with and without type 2 diabetes after myocardial infarction: a retrospective, matched-cohort study, Clin Ther, vol. 35, pp. 40-51, 2013.
C. R. Chapman and Bradshaw, D. H., Only modest long-term opioid dose escalation occurs over time in chronic nonmalignant pain management, J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother, vol. 27, pp. 370-7, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of fracture in adults: a nested case-control study using the general practice research database, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 178, pp. 559-69, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioid use for noncancer pain and risk of myocardial infarction amongst adults, J Intern Med, vol. 273, pp. 511-26, 2013.
L. Li, Setoguchi, S., Cabral, H., and Jick, S., Opioids and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with non-cancer pain, Pain Physician, vol. 16, pp. 77-88, 2013.
A. Nicholson, Ford, E., Davies, K. A., Smith, H. E., Rait, G., Tate, A. R., Petersen, I., and Cassell, J., Optimising use of electronic health records to describe the presentation of rheumatoid arthritis in primary care: a strategy for developing code lists, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e54878, 2013.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Oliva, B., Gorricho, J., Lopez, A., Timoner, J., Huerta, C., Gil, M., and de Abajo, F., Oral bisphosphonates are associated with increased risk of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal fractures in elderly women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
J. Erviti, Alonso, A., Gorricho, J., and Lopez, A., Oral bisphosphonates may not decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Spanish women: a nested case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
I. J. Douglas, Langham, J., Bhaskaran, K., Brauer, R., and Smeeth, L., Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 346, p. f1936, 2013.
G. Thomas, Khunti, K., Curcin, V., Molokhia, M., Millett, C., Majeed, A., and Paul, S., Obesity paradox in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without prior cardiovascular disease, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 317-25, 2014.
R. Das, Langerman, H., D'Oca, K., and Strongman, H., An Observational Cohort Study of Diabetes-Associated Secondary Health Care Utilisation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Prescribed Dual Combination Therapy With Oral Anti-Hyperglycaemic Agents in the UK, Value Health, vol. 17, p. A360, 2014.
T. P. van Staa, Dyson, L., McCann, G., Padmanabhan, S., Belatri, R., Goldacre, B., Cassell, J., Pirmohamed, M., Torgerson, D., Ronaldson, S., Adamson, J., Taweel, A., Delaney, B., Mahmood, S., Baracaia, S., Round, T., Fox, R., Hunter, T., Gulliford, M., and Smeeth, L., The opportunities and challenges of pragmatic point-of-care randomised trials using routinely collected electronic records: evaluations of two exemplar trials, Health Technol Assess, vol. 18, pp. 1-146, 2014.
R. C. Jones, Price, D., Ryan, D., Sims, E. J., von Ziegenweidt, J., Mascarenhas, L., Burden, A., Halpin, D. M., Winter, R., Hill, S., Kearney, M., Holton, K., Moger, A., Freeman, D., Chisholm, A., and Bateman, E. D., Opportunities to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in routine care in the UK: a retrospective study of a clinical cohort, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 2, pp. 267-76, 2014.
D. C. Hesdorffer, Ishihara, L., Webb, D. J., Mynepalli, L., Galwey, N. W., and Hauser, W. A., Occurrence and Recurrence of Attempted Suicide Among People With Epilepsy, JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 73, pp. 80-6, 2016.
S. J. Price, Stapley, S. A., Shephard, E., Barraclough, K., and Hamilton, W. T., Is omission of free text records a possible source of data loss and bias in Clinical Practice Research Datalink studies? A case-control study, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011664, 2016.
P. Datta-Nemdharry, Thomson, A., and Beynon, J., Opportunities and Challenges in Developing a Cohort of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Electronic Primary Care Data, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162236, 2016.
K. Wing, Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., van Staa, T. P., Klungel, O. H., Reynolds, R. F., and Douglas, I., Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records: use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012102, 2016.
M. Movahedi, Costello, R., Lunt, M., Pye, S. R., Sergeant, J. C., and Dixon, W. G., Oral glucocorticoid therapy and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 31, pp. 1045-1055, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]