Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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K. M. Fleming, Aithal, G. P., Card, T. R., and West, J., The rate of decompensation and clinical progression of disease in people with cirrhosis: a cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 32, pp. 1343-50, 2010.
V. A. Kiri, Soriano, J., Visick, G., and Fabbri, L., Recent trends in lung cancer and its association with COPD: an analysis using the UK GP Research Database, Prim Care Respir J, vol. 19, pp. 57-61, 2010.
C. Schneider, Jick, S. S., Bothner, U., and Meier, C. R., Reflux disease, gastrointestinal ulcer or weight loss in patients with COPD, Copd, vol. 7, pp. 172-8, 2010.
C. J. Taylor, Hodgkinson, J., and Hobbs, F. D., Rhythm control agents and adverse events in patients with atrial fibrillation, Int J Clin Pract, vol. 64, pp. 1069-75, 2010.
B. A. Schaer, Schneider, C., Jick, S. S., Conen, D., Osswald, S., and Meier, C. R., Risk for incident atrial fibrillation in patients who receive antihypertensive drugs: a nested case-control study, Ann Intern Med, vol. 152, pp. 78-84, 2010.
R. G. Armstrong, West, J., and Card, T. R., Risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine: a UK population-based case-control study, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 105, pp. 1604-9, 2010.
R. Cornish, Macleod, J., Strang, J., Vickerman, P., and Hickman, M., Risk of death during and after opiate substitution treatment in primary care: prospective observational study in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 341, p. c5475, 2010.
S. K. Kurd, Troxel, A. B., Crits-Christoph, P., and Gelfand, J. M., The risk of depression, anxiety, and suicidality in patients with psoriasis: a population-based cohort study, Arch Dermatol, vol. 146, pp. 891-5, 2010.
F. Andersohn, Waring, M., and Garbe, E., Risk of ischemic stroke in patients with Crohn's disease: a population-based nested case-control study, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1387-92, 2010.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of stroke in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol. 16, pp. 31-5, 2010.
H. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., and Egger, P., Rate of suicide in patients taking montelukast, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 29, pp. 165-6, 2009.
M. C. Gulliford and Charlton, J., Is relative mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus decreasing?, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 169, pp. 455-61, 2009.
L. A. Rodriguez, Tolosa, L. B., Ruigomez, A., Johansson, S., and Wallander, M. A., Rheumatoid arthritis in UK primary care: incidence and prior morbidity, Scand J Rheumatol, vol. 38, pp. 173-7, 2009.
Y. Hsia and Maclennan, K., Rise in psychotropic drug prescribing in children and adolescents during 1992-2001: a population-based study in the UK, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 24, pp. 211-6, 2009.
W. T. Hamilton, Gallagher, A. M., Thomas, J. M., and White, P. D., Risk markers for both chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndromes: a prospective case-control study in primary care, Psychol Med, vol. 39, pp. 1913-21, 2009.
I. Tzoulaki, Molokhia, M., Curcin, V., Little, M. P., Millett, C. J., Ng, A., Hughes, R. I., Khunti, K., Wilkins, M. R., Majeed, A., and Elliott, P., Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database, Bmj, vol. 339, p. b4731, 2009.
C. Schneider, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of cardiovascular outcomes in users of estradiol/dydrogesterone or other HRT preparations, Climacteric, vol. 12, pp. 445-53, 2009.
M. A. Feudjo-Tepie, Hall, S. A., Logie, J., and Robinson, N. J., Risk of cataract among idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura patients in the UK general practice research database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 18, pp. 380-5, 2009.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Pocock, S., and Smeeth, L., The risk of fractures associated with thiazolidinediones: a self-controlled case-series study, PLoS Med, vol. 6, p. e1000154, 2009.
C. Schneider, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of gynecological cancers in users of estradiol/dydrogesterone or other HRT preparations, Climacteric, vol. 12, pp. 514-24, 2009.
J. M. Gelfand, Dommasch, E. D., Shin, D. B., Azfar, R. S., Kurd, S. K., Wang, X., and Troxel, A. B., The risk of stroke in patients with psoriasis, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 129, pp. 2411-8, 2009.
S. S. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., The risk of unintended pregnancies in users of the contraceptive patch compared to users of oral contraceptives in the UK General Practice Research Database, Contraception, vol. 80, pp. 142-51, 2009.
A. Sundstrom, Seaman, H., Kieler, H., and Alfredsson, L., The risk of venous thromboembolism associated with the use of tranexamic acid and other drugs used to treat menorrhagia: a case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, Bjog, vol. 116, pp. 91-7, 2009.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Ruigomez, A., Martin-Merino, E., Johansson, S., and Wallander, M. A., Relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and COPD in UK primary care, Chest, vol. 134, pp. 1223-1230, 2008.
R. L. Tannen, Weiner, M. G., and Xie, D., Replicated studies of two randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: further empiric validation of the 'prior event rate ratio' to adjust for unmeasured confounding by indication, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 671-85, 2008.
M. G. Weiner, Xie, D., and Tannen, R. L., Replication of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study using a primary care medical record database prompted exploration of a new method to address unmeasured confounding, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 661-70, 2008.
M. Solaymani-Dodaran, Aithal, G. P., Card, T., and West, J., Risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in primary biliary cirrhosis: a population-based cohort study, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 103, pp. 2784-8, 2008.
C. Huerta, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Rodriguez, L. A., Risk of myocardial infarction and overall mortality in survivors of venous thromboembolism, Thromb J, vol. 6, p. 10, 2008.
H. E. Mulnier, Seaman, H. E., Raleigh, V. S., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Colhoun, H. M., Lawrenson, R. A., and de Vries, C. S., Risk of myocardial infarction in men and women with type 2 diabetes in the UK: a cohort study using the General Practice Research Database, Diabetologia, vol. 51, pp. 1639-45, 2008.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Almqvist, P. M., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., The risk of newly diagnosed asthma in migraineurs with or without previous triptan prescriptions, Headache, vol. 48, pp. 606-10, 2008.
F. J. de Abajo and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., Risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine therapy: interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and effect of acid-suppressing agents, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 65, pp. 795-803, 2008.
D. P. Osborn, Levy, G., Nazareth, I., Petersen, I., Islam, A., and King, M. B., Relative risk of cardiovascular and cancer mortality in people with severe mental illness from the United Kingdom's General Practice Rsearch Database, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 64, pp. 242-9, 2007.
C. Huerta, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Risk factors and short-term mortality of venous thromboembolism diagnosed in the primary care setting in the United Kingdom, Arch Intern Med, vol. 167, pp. 935-43, 2007.
F. N. Aberra, Stettler, N., Brensinger, C., Lichtenstein, G. R., and Lewis, J. D., Risk for active tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease patients, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 5, pp. 1070-5, 2007.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Edvardsson, N., Risk of cerebrovascular accident after a first diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, Clin Cardiol, vol. 30, pp. 624-8, 2007.
R. Srinivasan, Yang, Y. X., Rubin, S. C., Morgan, M. A., and Lewis, J. D., Risk of colorectal cancer in women with a prior diagnosis of gynecologic malignancy, J Clin Gastroenterol, vol. 41, pp. 291-6, 2007.
A. L. Smitten, Choi, H. K., Hochberg, M. C., Suissa, S., Simon, T. A., Testa, M. A., and Chan, K. A., The risk of herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the United States and the United Kingdom, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 57, pp. 1431-8, 2007.
L. Howard, Kirkwood, G., and Leese, M., Risk of hip fracture in patients with a history of schizophrenia, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 190, pp. 129-34, 2007.
J. M. Gelfand, Troxel, A. B., Lewis, J. D., Kurd, S. K., Shin, D. B., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Strom, B. L., The risk of mortality in patients with psoriasis: results from a population-based study, Arch Dermatol, vol. 143, pp. 1493-9, 2007.
A. Rubino, Roskell, N., Tennis, P., Mines, D., Weich, S., and Andrews, E., Risk of suicide during treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin: retrospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 334, p. 242, 2007.
F. de Vries, de Vries, C., Cooper, C., Leufkens, B., and van Staa, T. P., Reanalysis of two studies with contrasting results on the association between statin use and fracture risk: the General Practice Research Database, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 35, pp. 1301-8, 2006.
S. Smith, Smith, G. E., Heatlie, H., Bashford, J. N., Ashcroft, D. M., Verlander, N. Q., Duckworth, G. J., Mason, B., Smyth, B., and Maxwell, S., Reducing variation in antibacterial prescribing rates for 'cough/cold' and sore throat between 1993 and 2001: regional analyses using the general practice research database, Public Health, vol. 120, pp. 752-9, 2006.
K. B. Handoko, Souverein, P. C., van Staa, T. P., Meyboom, R. H., Leufkens, H. G., Egberts, T. C., and van den Bemt, P. M., Risk of aplastic anemia in patients using antiepileptic drugs, Epilepsia, vol. 47, pp. 1232-6, 2006.
J. M. Gelfand, Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Troxel, A. B., The risk of lymphoma in patients with psoriasis, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 126, pp. 2194-201, 2006.
J. M. Gelfand, Neimann, A. L., Shin, D. B., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Troxel, A. B., Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis, Jama, vol. 296, pp. 1735-41, 2006.
J. West, Logan, R. F., Hubbard, R. B., and Card, T. R., Risk of schizophrenia in people with coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a general population-based study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 23, pp. 71-4, 2006.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]