Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 August 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 207 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2566 results:
Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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M. C. Gulliford, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., Dregan, A., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Grieve, A. P., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Yardley, L., Cluster randomised trial in the General Practice Research Database: 1. Electronic decision support to reduce antibiotic prescribing in primary care (eCRT study), Trials, vol. 12, p. 115, 2011.
A. Dregan, Van Staa, T., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Ashworth, M., Charlton, J., Wolfe, C., Rudd, A., Yardley, L., and Gulliford, M., Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. Secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol. 13, p. 181, 2012.
M. C. Gulliford, van Staa, T. P., McDermott, L., McCann, G., Charlton, J., and Dregan, A., Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study), Trials, vol. 15, p. 220, 2014.
A. Bakhai, Rigney, U., Hollis, S., and Emmas, C., Co-administration of statins with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in a UK primary care population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 485-93, 2012.
D. Metcalfe, Masters, J., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perry, D., Zogg, C., Gabbe, B., and Costa, M., Coding algorithms for defining Charlson and Elixhauser co-morbidities in Read-coded databases, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 19, p. 115, 2019.
N. Bhattarai, Charlton, J., Rudisill, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Coding, recording and incidence of different forms of coronary heart disease in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 7, p. e29776, 2012.
L. R. Rodgers, Weedon, M. N., Henley, W. E., Hattersley, A. T., and Shields, B. M., Cohort profile for the MASTERMIND study: using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to investigate stratification of response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017989, 2017.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., A cohort study of comorbidity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 57, pp. 291-299, 2018.
S. Venkatesan, Myles, P. R., Manning, H. J., Mozid, A. M., Andersson, C., Jorgensen, M. E., Hardman, J. G., Moonesinghe, S. R., Foex, P., Mythen, M., Grocott, M. P. W., and Sanders, R. D., Cohort study of preoperative blood pressure and risk of 30-day mortality after elective non-cardiac surgery, Br J Anaesth, vol. 119, pp. 65-77, 2017.
P. Mangtani, Cumberland, P., Hodgson, C. R., Roberts, J. A., Cutts, F. T., and Hall, A. J., A cohort study of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in older people, performed using the United Kingdom general practice research database, J Infect Dis, vol. 190, pp. 1-10, 2004.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Mannino, S., Wallander, M. A., and Lindblom, B., A cohort study of the ocular safety of anti-ulcer drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 42, pp. 213-6, 1996.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Duque, A., Castellsague, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Stricker, B. H., A cohort study on the risk of acute liver injury among users of ketoconazole and other antifungal drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 48, pp. 847-52, 1999.
J. Castellsague, Kuiper, J. G., Pottegard, A., I. Berglind, A., Dedman, D., Gutierrez, L., Calingaert, B., van Herk-Sukel, M. P., Hallas, J., Sundstrom, A., Gallagher, A. M., Kaye, J. A., Pardo, C., Rothman, K. J., and Perez-Gutthann, S., A cohort study on the risk of lymphoma and skin cancer in users of topical tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and corticosteroids (Joint European Longitudinal Lymphoma and Skin Cancer Evaluation - JOELLE study), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 299-310, 2018.
C. Schneider, Bodmer, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Colorectal cancer and markers of anemia, Eur J Cancer Prev, vol. 27, pp. 530-538, 2018.
R. Charlton, Snowball, J., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C., Colorectal cancer incidence on the General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 775-783, 2012.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Bloomfield, K., and de Vries, C. S., Colorectal cancer risk reduction following macrogol exposure: a cohort and nested case control study in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 8, p. e83203, 2013.
O. H. Yu, Yin, H., and Azoulay, L., The combination of DPP-4 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment in the risk for major cardiovascular events and death, Can J Diabetes, vol. 39, pp. 383-9, 2015.
C. L. Morgan, Mukherjee, J., Jenkins-Jones, S., Holden, S. E., and Currie, C. J., Combination therapy with metformin plus sulphonylureas versus metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors: association with major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 977-83, 2014.
L. Azoulay, Schneider-Lindner, V., Dell'Aniello, S., Schiffrin, A., and Suissa, S., Combination therapy with sulfonylureas and metformin and the prevention of death in type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 335-42, 2010.
J. Busby, Murray, L., Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F., and Cardwell, C. R., A combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiology approach to identify existing medications with breast cancer causing or preventing properties, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 27, pp. 78-86, 2018.
M. O. Bernier, Mikaeloff, Y., Hudson, M., and Suissa, S., Combined oral contraceptive use and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 61, pp. 476-81, 2009.
A. Dregan, Matcham, F., Harber-Aschan, L., Rayner, L., Brailean, A., Davis, K., Hatch, S., Pariante, C., Armstrong, D., Stewart, R., and Hotopf, M., Common mental disorders within chronic inflammatory disorders: a primary care database prospective investigation, Ann Rheum Dis, 2019.
A. Schultze, Graham, S., Nordstrom, B. L., Mehmud, F., and Ramagopalan, S. V., Commonly used definitions in real-world studies may underestimate the prevalence of renal disease among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients, J Comp Eff Res, 2019.
O. B. Sanni, Menamin, U. C. Mc, Cardwell, C. R., Sharp, L., Murray, L. J., and Coleman, H. G., Commonly used medications and endometrial cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Br J Cancer, vol. 117, pp. 432-438, 2017.
F. Othman, Crooks, C. J., and Card, T. R., Community acquired pneumonia incidence before and after proton pump inhibitor prescription: population based study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5813, 2016.
N. M. Hawkins, Scholes, S., Bajekal, M., Love, H., O'Flaherty, M., Raine, R., and Capewell, S., Community care in England: reducing socioeconomic inequalities in heart failure, Circulation, vol. 126, pp. 1050-7, 2012.
L. T. A. Mounce, Price, S., Valderas, J. M., and Hamilton, W., Comorbid conditions delay diagnosis of colorectal cancer: a cohort study using electronic primary care records, Br J Cancer, vol. 116, pp. 1536-1543, 2017.
C. J. Crooks, West, J., and Card, T. R., Comorbidities affect risk of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1384-93, 1393.e1-2; quiz e18-9, 2013.
H. Li, Hodgson, E., Watson, L., Shukla, A., and Nelson, J. J., Comorbidities and Concomitant Medication Use in Men with Prostate Cancer or High Levels of PSA Compared to Matched Controls: A GPRD Analysis, J Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 2012, p. 291704, 2012.
M. Feudjo-Tepie, Ferguson, S., Roddam, A., Taylor, A., Bayly, J., and Critchlow, C., Comorbidities, bone-sparing agent prescription history and their determinants among postmenopausal women in UK primary care settings: a retrospective database study, Arch Osteoporos, vol. 10, p. 41, 2015.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Comorbidities in patients with gout prior to and following diagnosis: case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 210-7, 2016.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Comorbidities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica prior to and following diagnosis: A case control and cohort study, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 50, pp. 663-672, 2020.
D. C. Perry, Bruce, C. E., Pope, D., Dangerfield, P., Platt, M. J., and Hall, A. J., Comorbidities in Perthes' disease: a case control study using the General Practice Research database, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 94, pp. 1684-9, 2012.
M. A. Feudjo-Tepie, Le Roux, G., Beach, K. J., Bennett, D., and Robinson, N. J., Comorbidities of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a population-based study, Adv Hematol, vol. 2009, p. 963506, 2009.
F. Nyberg, Horne, L., Morlock, R., Nuevo, J., Storgard, C., Aiyer, L., Hines, D. M., Ansolabehere, X., and Chevalier, P., Comorbidity Burden in Trial-Aligned Patients with Established Gout in Germany, UK, US, and France: a Retrospective Analysis, Adv Ther, vol. 33, pp. 1180-98, 2016.
M. Nowakowska, Zghebi, S. S., Ashcroft, D. M., Buchan, I., Chew-Graham, C., Holt, T., Mallen, C., van Marwijk, H., Peek, N., Perera-Salazar, R., Reeves, D., Rutter, M. K., Weng, S. F., Qureshi, N., Mamas, M. A., and Kontopantelis, E., The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 145, 2019.
I. J. Chou, Kuo, C. F., Tanasescu, R., Tench, C. R., Tiley, C. G., Constantinescu, C. S., and Whitehouse, W. P., Comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: its temporal relationships with disease onset and dose effect on mortality, Eur J Neurol, 2019.
R. G. de Jong, Gallagher, A. M., Herrett, E., Masclee, A. A., Janssen-Heijnen, M. L., and de Vries, F., Comparability of the age and sex distribution of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the total Dutch population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1460-1464, 2016.
S. Khalid, Calderon-Larranaga, S., Hawley, S., Ali, M. S., Judge, A., Arden, N., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Comparative anti-fracture effectiveness of different oral anti-osteoporosis therapies based on "real-world" data: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1417-1431, 2018.
S. Toovey, Nieforth, K., Smith, P., Schlagenhauf, P., Adamcova, M., Tatt, I., Tomianovic, D., and Schnetzler, G., Comparative benefit of malaria chemoprophylaxis modelled in United Kingdom travellers, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 12, pp. 726-32, 2014.
S. Hennessy, Bilker, W. B., Knauss, J. S., Kimmel, S. E., Margolis, D. J., Morrison, M. F., Reynolds, R. F., Glasser, D. B., and Strom, B. L., Comparative cardiac safety of low-dose thioridazine and low-dose haloperidol, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 58, pp. 81-7, 2004.
A. Douros, Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Suissa, S., Comparative cardiovascular and hypoglycemic safety of glimepiride in type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
L. Sinyavskaya, Gauthier, S., Renoux, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Comparative effect of statins on the risk of incident Alzheimer disease, Neurology, vol. 90, pp. e179-e187, 2018.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
J. M. Gamble, Thomas, J. M., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative effectiveness of incretin-based therapies and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in 38,233 metformin monotherapy users, Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 95, p. e3995, 2016.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness of LABA-ICS versus LAMA as initial treatment in COPD targeted by blood eosinophils: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 6, pp. 855-862, 2018.
S. Y. Loo, Coulombe, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Brophy, J. M., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Comparative effectiveness of novel oral anticoagulants in UK patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019638, 2018.
C. S. Murray, Thomas, M., Richardson, K., Price, D. B., and Turner, S. W., Comparative Effectiveness of Step-up Therapies in Children with Asthma Prescribed Inhaled Corticosteroids: A Historical Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 5, pp. 1082-1090.e7, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effects of LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA for COPD: Cohort study in real world clinical practice: LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA in COPD, Chest, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 5 August 2020]