Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 May 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 203 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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I. Tamimi, Nicolau, B., Eimar, H., S. Madathil, A., Kezouh, A., Karp, I., and Tamimi, F., Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 849-857, 2018.
S. V. Eastwood, Mathur, R., Atkinson, M., Brophy, S., Sudlow, C., Flaig, R., de Lusignan, S., Allen, N., and Chaturvedi, N., Algorithms for the Capture and Adjudication of Prevalent and Incident Diabetes in UK Biobank, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0162388, 2016.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Bladou, F., Ernst, P., and Azoulay, L., Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 596-597, 2017.
K. Bhaskaran, Douglas, I., Evans, S., Van Staa, T., and Smeeth, L., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer: cohort study among people receiving antihypertensive drugs in UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 344, p. e2697, 2012.
K. L. Goh, Bhaskaran, K., Minassian, C., Evans, S. J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia: cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 79, pp. 337-50, 2015.
I. Essers, Stolwijk, C., Boonen, A., De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., de Vries, F., and van Tubergen, A., Ankylosing spondylitis and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a population-based cohort study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 203-9, 2016.
C. Hopkins, Williamson, E., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Little, P., Lund, V. J., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Carpenter, J., and Denaxas, S., Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Huerta, C., Souverein, P. C., de Abajo, F., Leufkens, H. G., Slattery, J., Alvarez, Y., Miret, M., Gil, M., Oliva, B., Hesse, U., Requena, G., de Vries, F., Rottenkolber, M., Schmiedl, S., Reynolds, R., Schlienger, R. G., de Groot, M. C., Klungel, O. H., van Staa, T. P., van Dijk, L., Egberts, A. C., Gardarsdottir, H., and De Bruin, M. L., Antidepressant prescribing in five European countries: application of common definitions to assess the prevalence, clinical observations, and methodological implications, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 849-57, 2014.
C. Martinez, Rietbrock, S., Wise, L., Ashby, D., Chick, J., Moseley, J., Evans, S., and Gunnell, D., Antidepressant treatment and the risk of fatal and non-fatal self harm in first episode depression: nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 330, p. 389, 2005.
J. H. Flory, Ellenberg, S., Szapary, P. O., Strom, B. L., and Hennessy, S., Antidiabetic action of bezafibrate in a large observational database, Diabetes Care, vol. 32, pp. 547-51, 2009.
R. Charlton, Garne, E., Wang, H., Klungsoyr, K., Jordan, S., Neville, A., Pierini, A., Hansen, A., Engeland, A., Gini, R., Thayer, D., Bos, J., Puccini, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and L. van den Berg, deJong-, Antiepileptic drug prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 1144-54, 2015.
C. Klop, Gibson-Smith, D., Elders, P. J., Welsing, P. M., Leufkens, H. G., Harvey, N. C., Bijlsma, J. W., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., Anti-osteoporosis drug prescribing after hip fracture in the UK: 2000-2010, Osteoporos Int, vol. 26, pp. 1919-28, 2015.
R. J. Pitman, Melegaro, A., Gelb, D., Siddiqui, M. R., Gay, N. J., and Edmunds, W. J., Assessing the burden of influenza and other respiratory infections in England and Wales, J Infect, vol. 54, pp. 530-8, 2007.
J. L. Walker, Zhao, H., Dabrera, G., Andrews, N., Thomas, S. L., Tsang, C., Ellis, J., Donati, M., and Pebody, R. G., Assessment of Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy in Preventing Influenza Infection in Infants in England, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, J Infect Dis, 2019.
S. Hajat, Haines, A., Atkinson, R. W., Bremner, S. A., Anderson, H. R., and Emberlin, J., Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 153, pp. 704-14, 2001.
V. Sazonov, Beetsch, J., Phatak, H., Wentworth, C., and Evans, M., Association between dyslipidemia and vascular events in patients treated with statins: report from the UK General Practice Research Database, Atherosclerosis, vol. 208, pp. 210-6, 2010.
S. Hawley, Cordtz, R., Dreyer, L., Edwards, C. J., Arden, N. K., Delmestri, A., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Association between NICE guidance on biologic therapies with rates of hip and knee replacement among rheumatoid arthritis patients in England and Wales: An interrupted time-series analysis, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 47, pp. 605-610, 2018.
Y. M. F. Andersen, Egeberg, A., Ban, L., Gran, S., Williams, H. C., Francis, N. A., Knop, F. K., Gislason, G. H., Skov, L., and Thyssen, J. P., Association Between Topical Corticosteroid Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Two European Population-Based Adult Cohorts, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 1095-1103, 2019.
J. Browne, Edwards, D. A., Rhodes, K. M., Brimicombe, D. J., and Payne, R. A., Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012546, 2017.
R. A. Charlton, Pierini, A., Klungsoyr, K., Neville, A. J., Jordan, S., van den Berg, L. T. de Jong, Thayer, D., Bos, H. J., Puccini, A., Hansen, A. V., Gini, R., Engeland, A., Andersen, A. M. Nybo, Dolk, H., and Garne, E., Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009237, 2016.
F. Giorgianni, Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Beta 2 agonists and the incidence of Parkinson's disease, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
C. R. Cardwell, Coleman, H. G., Murray, L. J., Entschladen, F., and Powe, D. G., Beta-blocker usage and breast cancer survival: a nested case-control study within a UK clinical practice research datalink cohort, Int J Epidemiol, vol. 42, pp. 1852-61, 2013.
N. Ismail, Jordan, K. P., Kadam, U. T., Edwards, J. J., Kinnaird, T., and Mamas, M. A., Bleeding After Hospital Discharge Following Acute Coronary Syndrome: Incidence, Types, Timing, and Predictors, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 8, p. e013679, 2019.
C. A. Emdin, Rothwell, P. M., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Kiran, A., Conrad, N., Callender, T., Mehta, Z., Pendlebury, S. T., Anderson, S. G., Mohseni, H., Woodward, M., and Rahimi, K., Blood Pressure and Risk of Vascular Dementia: Evidence From a Primary Care Registry and a Cohort Study of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke, Stroke, vol. 47, pp. 1429-35, 2016.
N. Qizilbash, Gregson, J., Johnson, M. E., Pearce, N., Douglas, I., Wing, K., Evans, S. J. W., and Pocock, S. J., BMI and risk of dementia in two million people over two decades: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 3, pp. 431-436, 2015.
V. Abbing-Karahagopian, Kurz, X., de Vries, F., van Staa, T. P., Alvarez, Y., Hesse, U., Hasford, J., Dijk, L., de Abajo, F. J., Weil, J. G., Grimaldi-Bensouda, L., Egberts, A. C., Reynolds, R. F., and Klungel, O. H., Bridging differences in outcomes of pharmacoepidemiological studies: design and first results of the PROTECT project, Curr Clin Pharmacol, vol. 9, pp. 130-8, 2014.
M. Gokhale, Hattori, T., Evitt, L., Lenney, W., Nordstrom, B., Collins, J., Schultze, A., and Van Dyke, M. K., Burden of asthma exacerbations and health care utilization in pediatric patients with asthma in the US and England, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2020.
E. A. Yanni, Ferreira, G., Guennec, M., Y. Hahi, E., A. Ghachi, E., Haguinet, F., Espie, E., and Bianco, V., Burden of herpes zoster in 16 selected immunocompromised populations in England: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2000-2012, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020528, 2018.
A. Judge, Wallace, G., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., and Edwards, C. J., Can the publication of guidelines change the management of early rheumatoid arthritis? An interrupted time series analysis from the United Kingdom, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2244-8, 2015.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I. E., Mamas, M. A., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities, Circulation, 2019.
C. J. Edwards, Arden, N. K., Fisher, D., Saperia, J. C., Reading, I., van Staa, T. P., and Cooper, C., The changing use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 44, pp. 1394-8, 2005.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
A. Berger, Sadosky, A., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., and Oster, G., Clinical characteristics and patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with painful neuropathic disorders in UK general practice: a retrospective cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 12, p. 8, 2012.
C. Miani, Martin, A., Exley, J., Doble, B., Wilson, E., Payne, R., Avery, A., Meads, C., Kirtley, A., Jones, M. M., and King, S., Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of issuing longer versus shorter duration (3-month vs. 28-day) prescriptions in patients with chronic conditions: systematic review and economic modelling, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-128, 2017.
I. J. Douglas, Evans, S. J., Hingorani, A. D., Grosso, A. M., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Clopidogrel and interaction with proton pump inhibitors: comparison between cohort and within person study designs, Bmj, vol. 345, p. e4388, 2012.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Ray, K. K., Begg, A., Emmas, C., and Fox, K. A., Clopidogrel discontinuation after acute coronary syndromes: frequency, predictors and associations with death and myocardial infarction–a hospital registry-primary care linked cohort (MINAP-GPRD), Eur Heart J, vol. 32, pp. 2376-86, 2011.
A. Bakhai, Rigney, U., Hollis, S., and Emmas, C., Co-administration of statins with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors in a UK primary care population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 485-93, 2012.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness of LABA-ICS versus LAMA as initial treatment in COPD targeted by blood eosinophils: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 6, pp. 855-862, 2018.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effects of LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA for COPD: Cohort study in real world clinical practice: LAMA-LABA-ICS versus LAMA-LABA in COPD, Chest, 2019.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Comparative risk of major cardiovascular events associated with second-line antidiabetic treatments: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data linked to hospitalization and mortality records, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 916-24, 2016.
L. Hassan, Senior, J., Frisher, M., Edge, D., and Shaw, J., A comparison of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in East of England prisons and the general population, J Psychopharmacol, vol. 28, pp. 357-62, 2014.
D. M. Fleming, Ross, A. M., Cross, K. W., Kendall, H., and Elliot, A. J., Concerning: 'Why has antibiotic prescribing for respiratory illness declined in primary care? A longitudinal study using the General Practice Research Database', J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 27, pp. 228-9; author reply 229-31, 2005.
Y. Lis, Spitzer, W. O., Mann, R. D., Chukwujindu, J., Thorogood, M., Evans, S., Suissa, S., and Lelorier, J., A concurrent cohort study of oral contraceptive users from the VAMP research bank, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 2, pp. 51-63, 1993.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Concurrent use of long-acting bronchodilators in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, Eur Respir J, vol. 49, 2017.
R. Boggon, Eaton, S., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Gabriel, H., Minhas, I., and van Staa, T. P., Current prescribing of statins and persistence to statins following ACS in the UK: a MINAP/GPRD study, Br J Cardiol, vol. 19, p. 24, 2012.
[Page last reviewed 5 May 2020]