Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,300 peer-reviewed publications.

The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 October 2019) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


(PDF, 3MB, 190 pages)


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C. Hopkins, Williamson, E., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Little, P., Lund, V. J., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Carpenter, J., and Denaxas, S., Antibiotic usage in chronic rhinosinusitis: analysis of national primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
Y. M. F. Andersen, Egeberg, A., Ban, L., Gran, S., Williams, H. C., Francis, N. A., Knop, F. K., Gislason, G. H., Skov, L., and Thyssen, J. P., Association Between Topical Corticosteroid Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Two European Population-Based Adult Cohorts, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 1095-1103, 2019.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I. E., Mamas, M. A., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities, Circulation, 2019.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness and safety of LABA-LAMA versus LABA-ICS treatment of COPD in real world clinical practice, Chest, 2019.
S. Hawley, Edwards, C. J., Arden, N. K., Delmestri, A., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Descriptive epidemiology of hip and knee replacement in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of UK electronic medical records, Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2019.
H. Whittaker, Connell, O., Campbell, J., Elbehairy, A. F., Hopkinson, N. S., and Quint, J. K., Eligibility for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients identified in a UK primary care setting, Chest, 2019.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., Reynier, P., and Filion, K. B., Estimation of high-dimensional propensity scores with multiple exposure levels, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
L. Harris, Graham, S., MacLachlan, S., Exuzides, A., and Jacob, S., Healthcare resource utilization by patients with treatment-refractory myasthenia gravis in England, J Med Econ, pp. 1-7, 2019.
D. Curran, Hunjan, M., A. Ghachi, E., El-Hahi, Y., Bianco, V., and Ferreira, G., Herpes zoster related healthcare burden and costs in immunocompromised (IC) and IC-free populations in England: an observational retrospective database analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e023502, 2019.
N. Al-Attar, Johnston, S., Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Ghosh, E., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Etter, K., and Ammann, E., Impact of bleeding complications on length of stay and critical care utilization in cardiac surgery patients in England, J Cardiothorac Surg, vol. 14, p. 64, 2019.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Pinedo-Villanueva, R., The impact of bmi and smoking on risk of revision following knee and hip replacement surgery: evidence from routinely collected data, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Wagner, M., Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A., and Jick, S., Multi-database study of multiple sclerosis: identification, validation and description of MS patients in two countries, J Neurol, 2019.
S. Weir, Kuo, T. C., Samnaliev, M., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Reoperation following lumbar spinal surgery: costs and outcomes in a UK population cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), Eur Spine J, 2019.
E. Williamson, Denaxas, S., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Direk, K., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Little, P., Lund, V., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Hopkins, C., and Carpenter, J., Risk of mortality and cardiovascular events following macrolide prescription in chronic rhinosinusitis patients: a cohort study using linked primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
C. Linde, Qin, L., Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., Ayoubkhani, D., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and McEwan, P., Serum potassium and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: results of risk calculations in 21 334 patients in the UK, ESC Heart Fail, 2019.
J. L. Rees, Shah, A., Edwards, K., Sanchez-Santos, M. T., Robinson, D. E., Delmestri, A., Carr, A., Arden, N., Lamb, S. E., Rangan, A., Judge, A., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Holt, T., Hopewell, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Collins, G., Treatment of first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: the UK TASH-D cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-104, 2019.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
I. Tamimi, Nicolau, B., Eimar, H., S. Madathil, A., Kezouh, A., Karp, I., and Tamimi, F., Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 29, pp. 849-857, 2018.
S. Hawley, Cordtz, R., Dreyer, L., Edwards, C. J., Arden, N. K., Delmestri, A., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Association between NICE guidance on biologic therapies with rates of hip and knee replacement among rheumatoid arthritis patients in England and Wales: An interrupted time-series analysis, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 47, pp. 605-610, 2018.
E. A. Yanni, Ferreira, G., Guennec, M., Y. Hahi, E., A. Ghachi, E., Haguinet, F., Espie, E., and Bianco, V., Burden of herpes zoster in 16 selected immunocompromised populations in England: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2000-2012, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020528, 2018.
A. I. B. Kurdi, Elliott, R. A., and Chen, L. C., Clinical and economic implications of therapeutic switching of angiotensin receptor blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a population-based study, J Hypertens, 2018.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative effectiveness of LABA-ICS versus LAMA as initial treatment in COPD targeted by blood eosinophils: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Respir Med, vol. 6, pp. 855-862, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Snell, K. I. E., Riley, R. D., Bedson, J., Edwards, J. J., Mallen, C. D., Tan, V., Ukachukwu, V., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Walker, C., and Peat, G., Development and validation of prediction models to estimate risk of primary total hip and knee replacements using data from the UK: two prospective open cohorts using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, 2018.
A. Cassell, Edwards, D., Harshfield, A., Rhodes, K., Brimicombe, J., Payne, R., and Griffin, S., The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e245-e251, 2018.
J. L. Hong, M. Funk, J., LoCasale, R., Dempster, S. E., Cole, S. R., Webster-Clark, M., Edwards, J. K., and Sturmer, T., Generalizing Randomized Clinical Trial Results: Implementation and Challenges Related to Missing Data in the Target Population, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 187, pp. 817-827, 2018.
A. Douros, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Etminan, M., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Incident Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2330-2338, 2018.
M. Pujades-Rodriguez, Guttmann, O. P., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Duyx, B., O'Mahony, C., Elliott, P., and Hemingway, H., Identifying unmet clinical need in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using national electronic health records, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0191214, 2018.
C. J. Currie, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Voss, B., Rajpathak, S. N., Alemayehu, B., Peters, J. R., and Engel, S. S., Impact of differing glucose-lowering regimens on the pattern of association between glucose control and survival, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 20, pp. 821-830, 2018.
O. M. Moussa, Erridge, S., Chidambaram, S., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., and Purkayastha, S., Mortality of the Severely Obese: A Population Study, Ann Surg, 2018.
S. A. Julious, Horspool, M. J., Davis, S., Franklin, M., Smithson, W. H., Norman, P., Simpson, R. M., Elphick, H., Bortolami, O., and Cooper, C., Open-label, cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a brief letter from a GP on unscheduled medical contacts associated with the start of the school year: the PLEASANT trial, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e017367, 2018.
R. Costello, Jacklin, C., M. Evans, J., McBeth, J., and Dixon, W. G., Representativeness of a digitally engaged population and a patient organisation population with rheumatoid arthritis and their willingness to participate in research: a cross-sectional study, RMD Open, vol. 4, p. e000664, 2018.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O. M., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., and Purkayastha, S., Risk of GERD-Related Disorders in Obese Patients on PPI Therapy: a Population Analysis, Obes Surg, vol. 28, pp. 2796-2803, 2018.
H. Furuland, McEwan, P., Evans, M., Linde, C., Ayoubkhani, D., Bakhai, A., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and Qin, L., Serum potassium as a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: new risk equations using the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Nephrol, vol. 19, p. 211, 2018.
E. Kontopantelis, Stevens, R. J., Helms, P. J., Edwards, D., Doran, T., and Ashcroft, D. M., Spatial distribution of clinical computer systems in primary care in England in 2016 and implications for primary care electronic medical record databases: a cross-sectional population study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020738, 2018.
J. Gordon, McEwan, P., Idris, I., Evans, M., and Puelles, J., Treatment choice, medication adherence and glycemic efficacy in people with type 2 diabetes: a UK clinical practice database study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 6, p. e000512, 2018.
E. Burn, Edwards, C. J., Murray, D. W., Silman, A., Cooper, C., Arden, N. K., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Trends and determinants of length of stay and hospital reimbursement following knee and hip replacement: evidence from linked primary care and NHS hospital records from 1997 to 2014, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e019146, 2018.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Bladou, F., Ernst, P., and Azoulay, L., Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia, Thorax, vol. 72, pp. 596-597, 2017.
J. Browne, Edwards, D. A., Rhodes, K. M., Brimicombe, D. J., and Payne, R. A., Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e012546, 2017.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
C. Miani, Martin, A., Exley, J., Doble, B., Wilson, E., Payne, R., Avery, A., Meads, C., Kirtley, A., Jones, M. M., and King, S., Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of issuing longer versus shorter duration (3-month vs. 28-day) prescriptions in patients with chronic conditions: systematic review and economic modelling, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-128, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Concurrent use of long-acting bronchodilators in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, Eur Respir J, vol. 49, 2017.
J. Wilding, Bailey, C., Rigney, U., Blak, B., Kok, M., and Emmas, C., Dapagliflozin therapy for type 2 diabetes in primary care: Changes in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure over 2 years follow-up, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 437-444, 2017.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. - C., Choitir, C. N., Tierney, T. S., Taylor, R. S., Manca, A., Bruce, J., Cumming, D., and Eldabe, S., Does instrumented spinal surgery have an increased rate of persistent post-operative pain (PPP)?, The Spine Journal, vol. 17, p. S11, 2017.
N. Larivee, Suissa, S., Eberg, M., Joseph, L., Eisenberg, M. J., Abenhaim, H. A., and Filion, K. B., Drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptives and the risk of arterial thrombosis: a population-based nested case-control study, Bjog, vol. 124, pp. 1672-1679, 2017.
N. Larivee, Suissa, S., Eberg, M., Joseph, L., Eisenberg, M. J., Abenhaim, H. A., and Filion, K. B., Drospirenone-containing combined oral contraceptives and the risk of arterial thrombosis: a population-based nested case-control study, Bjog, vol. 124, pp. 1672-1679, 2017.
P. Brassard, Wu, J. W., Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Smiechowski, B., and Suissa, S., The effect of statins on influenza-like illness morbidity and mortality, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 63-70, 2017.
M. Eberg, Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., The Estimation of Gestational Age at Birth in Database Studies, Epidemiology, vol. 28, pp. 854-862, 2017.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Carr, M. J., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Examining trends in type 2 diabetes incidence, prevalence and mortality in the UK between 2004 and 2014, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1537-1545, 2017.
A. I. Kurdi, Chen, L. C., and Elliott, R. A., Exploring factors associated with patients' adherence to antihypertensive drugs among people with primary hypertension in the United Kingdom, J Hypertens, vol. 35, pp. 1881-1890, 2017.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., Gale, C. R., Evandrou, M., Syddall, H., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., A. Sayer, A., Coggon, D., and Walker-Bone, K., Frailty, prefrailty and employment outcomes in Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF) Study, Occup Environ Med, vol. 74, pp. 476-482, 2017.
[Page last reviewed 4 October 2019]