Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2741 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., and Payne, R., Association of prior lymphopenia with mortality in pneumonia: a cohort study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e148-e156, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Nugawela, M., Sathish, T., Majeed, A., Vamos, E., Molina, G., and Sivaprasad, S., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in the United Kingdom: A population-based historical cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Funston, G., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003504, 2021.
R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
E. Ford, Sheppard, J., Oliver, S., Rooney, P., Banerjee, S., and Cassell, J. A., Automated detection of patients with dementia whose symptoms have been identified in primary care but have no formal diagnosis: a retrospective case-control study using electronic primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e039248, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Buch, M. H., Baxter, P., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis over two decades, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2021.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
R. Pradhan, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Sahasrabudhe, V., E. Andre, B., and Azoulay, L., Defining Clinically-Relevant Target Populations Using Real-World Data to Guide the Design of Representative Antidiabetic Drug Trials, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., Kapur, N., Chew-Graham, C. A., Abel, K. M., Hope, H., Pierce, M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, pp. e124-e135, 2021.
D. Yu, Peat, G., Jordan, K. P., Bailey, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Robinson, D. E., Strauss, V. Y., Walker-Bone, K., Silman, A., Mamas, M., Blackburn, S., Dent, S., Dunn, K., Judge, A., Protheroe, J., and Wilkie, R., Estimating the population health burden of musculoskeletal conditions using primary care electronic health records, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Edwards, J., Heaton, T., Khan, O., Tsang, K., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol. 203, p. 106560, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Muttoni, S., Faraj, A., Tang, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., Jaffer, U., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021.
K. Richardson, Savva, G. M., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Maidment, I., Pakpahan, E., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Steel, N., Ballard, C., Howard, R., and Fox, C., Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic use for sleep disturbance in people aged over 55 years living with dementia: a series of cohort studies, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-202, 2021.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O., McIntyre, C., Hariri, A., Tolley, N., Kotecha, B., and Purkayastha, S., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, Obes Surg, 2021.
E. J. Peach, Pearce, F. A., Gibson, J., Cooper, A. J., Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
C. A. Lawson, Seidu, S., Zaccardi, F., McCann, G., Kadam, U. T., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Heerspink, H. L., and Khunti, K., Outcome trends in people with heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the UK over twenty years, EClinicalMedicine, 2021.
L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
M. J. Schuemie, Weinstein, R., Ryan, P. B., and Berlin, J. A., Quantifying bias in epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between acetaminophen use and cancer, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol. 120, p. 104866, 2021.
S. W. D. Merriel, Ingle, S. M., May, M. T., and Martin, R. M., Retrospective cohort study evaluating clinical, biochemical and pharmacological prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e044420, 2021.
K. J. Smith, Peterson, M. D., Victor, C., and Ryan, J. M., Risk of dementia in adults with cerebral palsy: a matched cohort study using general practice data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042652, 2021.
R. Morriss, Tyrer, F., Zaccardi, F., and Khunti, K., Safety of antidepressants in a primary care cohort of adults with obesity and depression, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0245722, 2021.
R. K. Akyea, Vinogradova, Y., Qureshi, N., Patel, R. S., Kontopantelis, E., Ntaios, G., Asselbergs, F. W., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Differences in Nonfatal Stroke Incidence and Subsequent Major Adverse Outcomes, Stroke, vol. 52, pp. 396-405, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Yu, O. H. Y., Ernst, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: A population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
V. Palin, Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Shorter and longer courses of antibiotics for common infections and the association with reductions of infection-related complications including hospital admissions, Clin Infect Dis, 2021.
G. J. Lefeber, Knol, W., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Koek, H. L., Statins After Ischemic Stroke in the Oldest: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, Stroke, p. Strokeaha120030755, 2021.
K. Phiri, Hallas, J., Linder, M., Margulis, A., Suehs, B., Arana, A., Bahmanyar, S., Hoffman, V., Enger, C., Horter, L., Odsbu, I., Olesen, M., Perez-Gutthann, S., Kristiansen, N. S., Appenteng, K., de Vogel, S., and Seeger, J., A study of cancer occurrence in users of mirabegron and antimuscarinic treatments for overactive bladder, Curr Med Res Opin, p. 1, 2021.
S. Swain, Coupland, C., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Sarmanova, A., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A., Englund, M., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Temporal relationship between osteoarthritis and comorbidities: a combined case control and cohort study in the UK primary care setting, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
A. Rahman, Kane, J., Montastruc, F., and Renoux, C., Trends in new prescription of gabapentinoids and of coprescription with opioids in the 4 nations of the UK, 1993-2017, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
J. Pearson-Stuttard, Bennett, J., Cheng, Y. J., Vamos, E. P., Cross, A. J., Ezzati, M., and Gregg, E. W., Trends in predominant causes of death in individuals with and without diabetes in England from 2001 to 2018: an epidemiological analysis of linked primary care records, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 9, pp. 165-173, 2021.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Thomas, K. S., Chalmers, J. R., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., and Gran, S., Using electronic health records to inform trial feasibility in a rare autoimmune blistering skin disease in England, BMC Med Res Methodol, vol. 21, p. 22, 2021.
D. Roy, Akriche, F., Amlani, B., and Shakir, S., Utilisation and Safety of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 with Electrolytes in Children Under 2 Years: A Retrospective Cohort, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2021.
J. Erwin, Enki, D. G., and Woolf, A. D., Younger people with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of fracture even before age 50 years: a population-based cohort study, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 March 2021]