Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 February 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 220 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2709 results:
Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Journal Article
H. Jick, Calcium-channel blockers and risk of cancer, Lancet, vol. 349, pp. 1699-700, 1997.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Ryan, R., and Reeves, D., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? Study 2–the effect of beta-adrenoceptor blocker therapy on cancer survival: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007299, 2015.
D. Reeves, Springate, D. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Ryan, R., Doran, T., Morris, R., Olier, I., and Kontopantelis, E., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? The effect of statins on the mortality of patients with ischaemic heart disease: a cohort study with nested case-control analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e004952, 2014.
S. H. Landis, Wurst, K., Le, H. V., Bonar, K., and Punekar, Y. S., Can Assessment of Disease Burden Prior to Changes in Initial COPD Maintenance Treatment Provide Insight into Remaining Unmet Needs? A Retrospective Database Study in UK Primary Care, Copd, vol. 14, pp. 80-85, 2017.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Jones, T., Kehoe, P. G., and Martin, R. M., Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012044, 2016.
E. S. Petherick, Pickett, K. E., and Cullum, N. A., Can different primary care databases produce comparable estimates of burden of disease: results of a study exploring venous leg ulceration, Fam Pract, vol. 32, pp. 374-80, 2015.
F. A. Pearce, Hubbard, R. B., Grainge, M. J., Watts, R. A., Abhishek, A., and Lanyon, P. C., Can granulomatosis with polyangiitis be diagnosed earlier in primary care? A case-control study, Qjm, vol. 111, pp. 39-45, 2018.
S. F. Weng, Reps, J., Kai, J., Garibaldi, J. M., and Qureshi, N., Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?, PLoS One, vol. 12, p. e0174944, 2017.
C. A. Bannister, Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Halcox, J. P., Schernthaner, G., Mukherjee, J., and Currie, C. J., Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monotherapy and matched, non-diabetic controls, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 16, pp. 1165-73, 2014.
A. Macfarlane, Hockley, C., McCandlish, R., and McNiece, R., Can the General Practice Research Database be used to monitor the health of babies and their mothers?, Health Stat Q, pp. 5-15, 2002.
A. Judge, Wallace, G., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., and Edwards, C. J., Can the publication of guidelines change the management of early rheumatoid arthritis? An interrupted time series analysis from the United Kingdom, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2244-8, 2015.
J. Coulombe, Moodie, E. E. M., Shortreed, S. M., and Renoux, C., Can the Risk of Severe Depression-Related Outcomes be Reduced by Tailoring the Antidepressant Therapy to Patient Characteristics?, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
S. Muller, Hider, S. L., Belcher, J., Helliwell, T., and Mallen, C. D., Is cancer associated with polymyalgia rheumatica? A cohort study in the General Practice Research Database, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 73, pp. 1769-73, 2014.
C. Tsang, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Cancer diagnosed by emergency admission in England: an observational study using the general practice research database, BMC Health Serv Res, vol. 13, p. 308, 2013.
J. A. Kaye, Margulis, A. V., Fortuny, J., McQuay, L. J., Plana, E., Bartsch, J. L., Bui, C. L., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Arana, A., Cancer Incidence after Initiation of Antimuscarinic Medications for Overactive Bladder in the United Kingdom: Evidence for Protopathic Bias, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, pp. 673-683, 2017.
L. T. Mounce, Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E., Cancer incidence following a high-normal platelet count: cohort study using electronic healthcare records from English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
E. Ankus, Price, S. J., Ukoumunne, O. C., Hamilton, W., and Bailey, S. E. R., Cancer incidence in patients with a high normal platelet count: a cohort study using primary care data, Fam Pract, vol. 35, pp. 671-675, 2018.
R. Boggon, van Staa, T. P., Chapman, M., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T. A., and Richards, M. A., Cancer recording and mortality in the General Practice Research Database and linked cancer registries, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 22, pp. 168-75, 2013.
R. Williams, van Staa, T. P., Gallagher, A. M., Hammad, T., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020827, 2018.
A. But, De Bruin, M. L., Bazelier, M. T., Hjellvik, V., Andersen, M., Auvinen, A., Starup-Linde, J., Schmidt, M. K., Furu, K., de Vries, F., Karlstad, O., Ekstrom, N., and Haukka, J., Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 60, pp. 1691-1703, 2017.
C. Becker, Brobert, G. P., Johansson, S., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Cancer risk in association with Parkinson disease: a population-based study, Parkinsonism Relat Disord, vol. 16, pp. 186-90, 2010.
R. Alsaggaf, St George, D. M. M., Zhan, M., Pfeiffer, R. M., Wang, Y., Wagner, K. R., Greene, M. H., Amr, S., and Gadalla, S. M., Cancer Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy Type I: Evidence of a Role for Disease Severity, JNCI Cancer Spectr, vol. 2, p. pky052, 2018.
G. Singh, Bell, G. S., Driever, P. H., and Sander, J. W., Cancer risk in people with epilepsy using valproate-sodium, Acta Neurol Scand, vol. 125, pp. 234-40, 2012.
S. Couraud, Dell'Aniello, S., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Cardiac glycosides and the risk of breast cancer in women with chronic heart failure and supraventricular arrhythmia, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 146, pp. 619-26, 2014.
S. Couraud, Azoulay, L., Dell'Aniello, S., and Suissa, S., Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case-control study, BMC Cancer, vol. 14, p. 573, 2014.
S. Hernandez-Diaz and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications, BMC Med, vol. 4, p. 22, 2006.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
S. Y. Loo, Azoulay, L., Nie, R., Dell'Aniello, S., Yu, O. H. Y., and Renoux, C., Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular safety of testosterone replacement therapy among aging men with low testosterone levels: a cohort study., Am J Med, 2019.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Ling, S., Davies, M. J., Samani, N. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with and without type 2 diabetes: An observational study in a contemporary multi-ethnic population, J Diabetes Investig, 2020.
A. K. Wright, Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I. E., Mamas, M. A., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., and Rutter, M. K., Cardiovascular Risk and Risk Factor Management in Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study Assessing Sex Disparities, Circulation, 2019.
L. Wei, Mackenzie, I. S., MacDonald, T. M., and George, J., Cardiovascular risk associated with sodium-containing medicines, Expert Opin Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 1515-23, 2014.
J. Dollerup, Vestbo, J., Murray-Thomas, T., Kaplan, A., Martin, R. J., Pizzichini, E., Pizzichini, M. M. M., Burden, A., Martin, J., and Price, D. B., Cardiovascular risks in smokers treated with nicotine replacement therapy: a historical cohort study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 231-243, 2017.
A. Gilsenan, Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Harding, A., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Odsbu, I., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Cardiovascular Safety of Prucalopride in Patients with Chronic Constipation: A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
R. Williams, de Vries, F., Kothny, W., Serban, C., Lopez-Leon, S., Chu, C., and Schlienger, R., Cardiovascular safety of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A European multi-database, non-interventional post-authorization safety study, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1473-1478, 2017.
I. Nazareth, King, M., Haines, A., Tai, S. S., and Hall, G., Care of schizophrenia in general practice, Bmj, vol. 307, p. 910, 1993.
I. Nazareth, King, M., and Davies, S., Care of schizophrenia in general practice: the general practitioner and the patient, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 45, pp. 343-7, 1995.
L. Smeeth, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A case control study of age related macular degeneration and use of statins, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 89, pp. 1171-5, 2005.
C. Becker, Meier, C. R., Jick, S. S., and Bodmer, M., Case-control analysis on metformin and cancer of the esophagus, Cancer Causes Control, vol. 24, pp. 1763-70, 2013.
L. Smeeth, Hall, A. J., Fombonne, E., Rodrigues, L. C., Huang, X., and Smith, P. G., A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology, BMC Public Health, vol. 1, p. 2, 2001.
I. J. Douglas, Cook, C., Chakravarthy, U., Hubbard, R., Fletcher, A. E., and Smeeth, L., A case-control study of drug risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, Ophthalmology, vol. 114, pp. 1164-9, 2007.
C. O. Sullivan, Omar, R. Z., Ambler, G., and Majeed, A., Case-mix and variation in specialist referrals in general practice, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 55, pp. 529-33, 2005.
L. Smeeth, Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., Cataract and the use of statins: a case-control study, Qjm, vol. 96, pp. 337-43, 2003.
C. Becker, Schneider, C., Aballea, S., Bailey, C., Bourne, R., Jick, S., and Meier, C., Cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus-incidence rates in the UK and risk factors, Eye (Lond), vol. 32, pp. 1028-1035, 2018.
A. Lalmohamed, Bazelier, M. T., van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Leufkens, H. G., de Boer, A., and de Vries, F., Causes of death in patients with multiple sclerosis and matched referent subjects: a population-based cohort study, Eur J Neurol, vol. 19, pp. 1007-14, 2012.
A. A. Sultan, Crooks, C. J., Card, T., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., and West, J., Causes of death in people with coeliac disease in England compared with the general population: a competing risk analysis, Gut, vol. 64, pp. 1220-6, 2015.
K. Abuabara, Azfar, R. S., Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Troxel, A. B., and Gelfand, J. M., Cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis: a population-based cohort study in the U.K, Br J Dermatol, vol. 163, pp. 586-92, 2010.
M. Solaymani-Dodaran, Card, T. R., and West, J., Cause-specific mortality of people with Barrett's esophagus compared with the general population: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 144, pp. 1375-83, 1383.e1, 2013.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., Cesarean delivery in the United Kingdom: time trends in the general practice research database, Obstet Gynecol, vol. 106, pp. 151-5, 2005.
[Page last reviewed 4 February 2021]